United States Army Disabled Veteran, Sergeant Kericia E. Smith Faces Third Heartbreaking Trauma of Her Life

img_1132Many people, born and raised in the United States from an early age adhere to and are taught to pledge our allegiance to the flag, and ultimately our allegiance to America –the red, white and blue, that is, the bloodshed, or the honor and purity of white and of an unstained message; and, a color that results in the blue as like streaming tears that come, however, despite that scripture tell us to love our neighbors.

Our neighbors as those who reside here with us under God. One Nation undivided, in liberty and justice for all. Hence, it is a must that we all consider to look at this message with the question of how does it happen that bad things are a reality in a country so great as this?

How, is it the case, that my country does not have my back, or that, those who live here do not have my best interest and the interest of my family; or the interests of my neighbor at heart? How–can one still love their neighbor, or more specifically, how can my neighbor love me after this, that is, the trauma of the American Dream; and, we ask how does this massacre of U.S. citizenry happen?

Embracing Me as Her Journalist

Sergeant Kericia E. Smith said, “I think you should tell them why you decided to write this story,” and after thinking about it, or rather, after her prompting I have agreed to tell you her story sprinkled with my voice (together we will speak) so that those still asleep abiding in the American Dream can wake up to the travesties of life happening while you are sleeping? I accepted this story without too many reservations, because firstly as Americans we forget that to give does not come in the form of money only, especially when someone faces hardship reaching deep into their heart and soul. I have a heart and to believers, the scriptures tell us “Do not worry…”. Scriptures also tell us that we are to ‘bear one another’s burdens’.

Secondly, I have been trained well to understand that as a journalist I am called to be the proverbial ‘watchdog’ of the government and not only the government but those who connect with it to utilize law, and along with this understanding I see that the more professional journalists (some seemingly) care more about their bosses than a common cause among the people; however, I have no boss except the Most Highest God of this universe. Hence, the excuse is taken away of what will I eat or what I will wear.

Also, in this stance I as a writer, a mother, wife, grandmother and citizen take the pledge to uplift my neighbor in whichever way I can in honesty and fair dealing and I know that this is the Way, and, I believe scripture is true that He will provide. As a reward, I have been trained to help Sergeant Kericia E. Smith through this circumstance. In any case, I am more grateful in this instance that the Most High chose me to serve her. As a result, Sergeant Smith has created a new phrase calling me her ‘freestyle journalist’. It’s catchy would you agree?

We need you to look at this, and notably, this story is for anyone facing the trauma of inadequate care of yourself or a loved one in a hospital and or health care environment, and this message is also helpful for workers who see such horrendous events take place.

The Call for Help

I received a voicemail from Sergeant Kericia E. Smith, founder and CEO of the Association of Veteran Women, Incorporated [AOVW, Inc.] who (in short) explained that she needed a storyteller. Telling me, she was having some troubles, or rather, that she is having a few heartbreaking moments she wanted me to take a look at.

So I do not need to tell you how excited I was and unprepared for even this one. Subsequently, I learned she is named after her best friend pronounced [Ker (ee) sha], and they also share a birth month.

Sergeant Smith is an advocate for all women, but mainly for those women who have risked their life serving their country in the Armed Forces. Ultimately, a voice that until now has gone unheard, and, she is a miracle because I believe she is a groundbreaker and a trend setter for many who have lost hope. Hence, she fits the profile of a fighter, and she does not look like what she has been through. Thus, as divine connections happen she and I have worked diligently and have crafted a story that is beneficial for the public to know. However, before I move on, it is important that you know that Kericia initially called several journalists’, major newspapers and magazines to tell her story, but decidedly they were uninterested because there was no response. Kericia says, that someone told her to search out freelance journalists and she found my website The Dailey Grind where my motto is ‘Reporting what the news won’t.’  She told me, that she prayed and left a message, and I am the only one to respond to help her.

Therefore, I tell you Kericia this is it—the time is now and that God has prepared you for such a time as this! In the words of Ms. Shirley Chisolm, Kericia has decided that she is “Unbought and Unbossed!”  Essentially, she says “My misery has become my ministry!” I agree.

My Best Friend Died

I am Sergeant Kericia E. Smith. I am a disabled veteran diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD], a trauma I acquired while on active duty. I was also my best friend’s primary caregiver, and is the reason why I want to tell you the story about my best friend who was admitted into Arlington Memorial Hospital for dehydration and a urinary tract infection, and who was later admitted to Kindred Rehabilitation Hospital for a bedsore. Moreover, in the process of admitting my best friend I was given admission papers to sign, but now in retrospect suspect there may have been a  Mandatory Binding Arbitration Clause. Nevertheless, I was never given a copy of any document I signed. However, in that case, what I do know is that my best friend was un-necessarily medicated to the point of a medically induced coma. As a result, they did not feed him, but without authorization inserted a feeding tube, gave him steroids and two blood thinners; along with, another drug that also causes bleeding.

In short, on May 16, 2016 at about 10:30 a.m., I walked into my best friend’s room and found him

img_1139

Custom Casket Spray

bleeding out severely, and all day long I begged the doctors and medical staff at Kindred Rehabilitation Hospital to transfer him to Arlington Memorial Hospital Emergency Room which is right across the street—they refused. Consequently, around 8:30 p.m., my best friend who was my father was unresponsive, and to my dismay there was no defibrillator available for them to attempt life-saving measures. Hence, my beloved father, a Medicare/Medicaid patient bleed-out and died.

To date, I have not been able to obtain my father’s death certificate because Kindred Rehabilitation Hospital has not filed or recorded it with the City of Arlington, or, Texas Department of Vital Statistics. I would also like to mention that Kloe my service dog was God sent and has done an outstanding job and has been a tremendous help throughout this ordeal—she saved me.

Please note, that if I had not fed my father and inserted a feeding tube, given him steroids, and if I had given two blood thinners; along with, another drug that causes bleeding and allowed him to bleed to death I would be in jail.  Needless to say, I am re-traumatized all over again, because (as mentioned) I was my father’s primary caregiver.  I witnessed my father’s death and it was nothing I could do to help him. Consequently, it is a sad day in America that I served my country since I was 18 years old, and yet, my father had no medical staff including doctors to care enough to let me save my father’s life by answering my pleas to transfer him to the emergency room across the street. I ask how can they continue to receive federal and state funds? These doctors and medical staff took an oath to save lives so how could they just stand by and let my precious beloved father die for no good reason?  

This is not an attack on all medical professionals or providers, and, it is in my personal opinion that there are excellent hospitals, doctors, nurses and other medical staff who give quality care to all their patients. However, at Kindred Rehabilitation Hospital my father did not receive the quality lifesaving treatment that he deserved. [Sergeant Kericia E. Smith, United States Army, and Army Reserve; Disabled Veteran; Face to Face Interview, Thursday, September 15, 2016; 4:30 p.m.].

This is a heartbreaking and touching story. Conversely, as I was writing and recounting her pain it is easy to visualize this scene taking place in the hospital, because for those of us who have lost a parent or both parents we understand grief– but not this way. Moreover, perhaps there is someone who can attest to this type trauma, or, those people who have experienced the trauma firsthand and know the full picture. Hence, here I will recount to highlight some of the facts Sergeant Smith mentioned so that we all will understand better the plight Sergeant Smith and her dad suffered at the hand of medical professionals who take an oath to save the lives of the people they treat.

A Brief Background Check of Kindred Rehabilitation Hospitals

Renamed Kindred Healthcare in 2001–Vencor (1998), was one of the nation’s most prominent healthcare companies, however, the company has a shady and elusive past and is due for a background check if you are considering this source for your loved ones. Kindred Healthcare Corporation is the largest healthcare company in the United States with a net worth of $7 billion (See: Kindred Hospital Annual Reports). Accordingly, Kindred Healthcare works under a plethora of venues, such as, post-acute services; including, transitional hospital care, short-term rehabilitation, skilled nursing, home health, long-term care, assisted living,  nursing facilities, palliative care and hospice.

Here is a breakdown of events:

Frederick D. Smith (October 11, 1937 - May 16, 2016)

Frederick D. Smith (October 11, 1937 – May 16, 2016)

   A Last Word from Sergeant Kericia E. Smith

Vencor/Kindred’s long history of wrongdoing seems to always survive and thrive due to Medicare fraud which only adds insult to injury with the loss of my father.  If these Medicare fraud cases were known to the public then our loved ones would be less likely to be put at risk.  Kindred seems to look at ‘profits over patients,’ and our lives are worthless because Kindred medical staff is reckless with our medical care. Additionally, any other business as unethical and abusive would have gone out of business decades ago, yet, Kindred continues to thrive on recklessly committing Medicare fraud. 

Why has the Department of Justice not been more aggressive at informing the public about Kindred’s record of bad behavior? It is the case, that Kindred decayed decades ago from the inside out, and this should send a stench up our noses because the carcasses of our loved ones are not collateral damage and the loss of life should cry out for justice. Nevertheless, we are told ‘If you see something to say something!’ Consequently, I did see something, and I said something, but they did absolutely nothing! It is absolutely appalling! Kindred Rehabilitation Hospital had NO Defibrillator!

I am Sergeant Kericia E. Smith and I approve this message—over and out!
[Sergeant Kericia E. Smith, Electronic Communication, September 21, 2016; 5:31p.m.].

Related Articles and Additional Resources

Also see:

Please stay tuned for more detailed information concerning Kindred Healthcare facilities the Tort Reform and Medicaid/Medicare Fraud (False Claims Act).

For more information on Association Of Veteran Women, Incorporated call:

Sergeant Kericia E. Smith, (817)461-5116. Or send an email to: aovwinc@aol.com

 

kayla-dailey__picKayla Dailey, is a prolific writer whose aspirations include hope of encouraging those who face trials and difficulties in life through the written word. As a student of the word she writes, Kayla has earned a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Journalism and Mass Communication from Ashford University, and holds, a Master of Arts Degree in Organizational Management with specialty in Public Administration. Mrs. Dailey is an advocate for civic and community building issues, African American liberties, equal employment, and now veterans and their families; as well as, advocacy against domestic violence for women, children, abortion and other issues people face.  

© Copyright 2016. The Dailey Grind. All Rights Reserved.

Government Growth: The Poor & Needy v. Rich & Greedy

The Food Stamp Program, as an area for growth [for me] would be essential. However, there seems to be a problem with feeding the nation’s poor, and there too is a problem when government cares more for war than feeding their own hungry people.

Today, according to the U.S. Census Bureau for the 2014 America’s Families and Living Arrangements table package includes:

Children living with two foreign-born parents: 38 percent have at least one foreign-born parent (28.3 million), and 10 percent live with a grandparent (7.4 million), 79 percent live with at least one sibling (58.5 million), 15 percent have a stay-at-home mother (10.8 million), and 0.6 percent have a stay-at-home father (420,000), 24 percent of children live with at least one foreign-born parent (18.1 million), Less than half (48 percent) of households today are married couples, down from 76 percent in 1940–  which costs an estimated $74.1 billion per year [US Census Bureau].

 I believe a certain proportion of society has been used as a scapegoat here.

 The reason the growth or expansion by government in the area is the existence of poor people, people working and still at poverty level, and more people coming into the country without means. It is the case, that whether black, white, Hispanic or some other people –there are poor people and some more so than others. Additionally, some have found themselves with and suddenly without because work ran out. Moreover, the fact that people need food, water, clean air—food being considered a common instead of public good is puzzling. For example, food is privatized which means a famer own the land which produces and sales that to private or corporate operations to sell to the public, and essentially, has taken even the right to grow food away from the public, that is, less people own land to grow their food, less people are educated to do so and so forth. Yet, to food is not considered a public good, but a need.

Jose Luis Vevero Pol (2014) wrote:

Air, water, and food are the three essential natural resources we human beings need to survive. Air is basically regarded as a public good. Water used to be considered a global public good up to the mid-20th century, but its very nature is highly disputed nowadays. However, usually we only pay for the purification and transportation of water. And then we have food, the third essential natural resource. The way we consider food has evolved since the 18th century, when the commons (land common to all) in Europe were gradually enclosed and transformed into privatized goods, either owned by private individuals or by the state or church. Communal property, that is customarily and legally considered as inalienable, indivisible, irreversible, not available for sale, and which cannot be encumbered or mortgaged, was transformed into private or public property. Since then, an increasing number of food production systems, such as wild fruits, coastal seafood areas, or oceanic fish stocks, have been privatized. This means that unless you have entitlements, such as proprietary rights or legal authorization, it’s almost impossible to get food freely from anywhere (Vevero Pol, 2014, para. 2).

Well, if people are poor and cannot buy their own food then this becomes a public problem. Consequently, it becomes a public problem when people are not well educated, are well educated, or in general cannot feed their families on minimum wage, as Lee, Johnson & Joyce (2008) stated the “Government responses to the demands of society” (Lee, 32) which says national hunger is a governmental issue. There is government concern as well when new people come into the land, as like immigration. Understandably, children whether natural or foreign have needed to be fed so the demand of the government to step in is broad covering healthcare and education over the importance of people eating? How can this be?

I agree with healthcare, but I do not agree with the public educational system in this country because it is not a fair one (Lee, 33). However, it’s a choice for parents to send their children there—still it is lacking for a proportionate number of students.

Concerning the FSP, however, government is local [i.e., handled by state] but there is a problem when senators during budget cuts decide that people need less food per month so the money can be placed somewhere else. Perhaps, those with the knife can spend a few days not knowing when they will eat next and see how that works for them.

That said, knowing America’s crooked politicians they will probably cheat and have someone sneaking them food while they lie and pretend they have been starving.

 

Related Articles

 One in Five Children Receive Food Stamps, Census Bureau Reports 

Why Isn’t Food a Public Good? 

A Call to Amendment: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

No_Child_Left_Behind_Act

Overview

The No Child Left behind Act of 2001, established during the Bush administration would ensure that all children receive fair and equal access to quality education. More specifically, in 2002, the policy required that all states test their students in reading, and math starting from grades three through grade eight, and again when the student reached high school level where students were to meet or exceed reading and math requirements. In addition, the act would help close the gap of achievement for students [according to the United States Department of Education] by providing quality education where focus was on (a) accountability and assurance to disadvantaged children, (b) flexibility that allowed federal funds to be used to improve student achievement, (c) research based education which placed emphasis on programs and practices that proved effective through scientific research, and (d) parent options which provided choices for Title 1 school parents (No Child Left Behind Act 2001). However, at present, the policy though well written has not taken shape, and neither has there been offered relief to support all students for which the policy was created other than to transfer a student passing from the school where the environment has become academically unsafe. Moreover, because of racial disparities and economic conditions such as poverty in districts the children are further subjugated to even poorer learning environments where there are meager classroom materials and less than adequate instruction. Therefore, this article will propose change to the current policy,  an amendment;  along with, recommendations to abolish areas where the policy has been breached by providing information which is overlooked and or ignored in current more up to date research concerning the No Child Left Behind Act overall.

Problems with Current Policy

Firstly, there are a number of reoccurring problems with standard testing as it pertains to the NCLB Act, and these must be dealt with to ensure that all students taking the exam have equal success. It is the case, that nearly every child entering the public school system [particularly] among the African American and Hispanic students exhibit ongoing failure even while there is instruction for the same.  Hence, the occurrence of such failure among the students would beg the question to ask is it really a fact that students are dumb or dumbed down?  Reportedly, blacks currently score lower on vocabulary, reading and math tests; including, measurement of aptitude and intelligence than European Americans, and the authors stated that “On some tests the typical American black still scores below 75 percent of the American whites on the same test (Jencks & Phillips, 1998, para.1). Accordingly, teachers/educators are required to ‘teach’ the test rather than teaching regular curriculum that stimulates the intellect, or creativity in the student. It is the case that much of the school year is taken over with this type programing, and the morale of both students and educators is low because of failure to pass the test. Hence, armed with this information the premise of reauthorization of the act is of no regard. Consequently, the premise of reauthorization only acts to restore previously enacted documents which to date have failed to yield positive results. As a result, the failure of the practice in testing students has not fulfilled the element of improved research. Therefore, a total amendment, and or more acceptable replacement is needed.

Secondly, the promise to close the achievement gap as enacted by law has failed, and reportedly, the gap has not been lessoned for years. According to a New York Times (2009) article, “’No Child’ Law is not Closing the Racial Gap”, it is apparent there has not been an improvement in years.

Sam Dillion (2009) wrote:

Between the year 2004 and 2009 when the article was written that even though black and Hispanic elementary, middle and high school students all scored much higher on the federal test than three decades ago most of the gains made were not recent but during the desegregation efforts of the 1970s and 80s and was well before the No Child law which in the official description admonishes to close the achievement gap (Dillon, 2009, para. 3).

The Official Description

SEC. 1. SHORT TITLE

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday, the third day of January, two thousand and one.

An Act

To close the achievement gap with accountability, flexibility, and choice, so that no child is left behind. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled [No Child Left Section 1].

According to the Center of Education Policy (as reported by USA Today), there are 43,000 schools in the US that fail, or have failed which means 48 percent of students have made no progress since the enactment of the law. This information is troubling, because the only relief noticeable to parents is the opportunity once a child fails to transfer to a district passing. Hence, this too brings problems added to problems when transportation becomes a problem. Nevertheless, the report is telling that in Wisconsin (for example) the failure was extremely low at 11 percent. In explanation, of the failed standards for the federal exam policymakers have predicted failure rates of 82 percent, however, there are claims as well that the statistics are in error. In essence, to keep with the premise of requirement by law that every student perform at grade level by the year 2014 is impossible and has failed according to some educators (USA Today, 2014, para.1).

Thirdly, there is variance in the degree of difficulty as it pertains to the standardized testing. For example, in some school districts there are different tests given. In the USA Today article there is information given to that effect. The authors wrote, “State’s scores varied widely”. For example, in Georgia, 27% of schools did not meet targets, compared to 81% in Massachusetts and 16% in Kansas” In addition, the authors stated that even state officials argue that the act is do for rewrite, and further that officials offer little hope when lawmakers cannot agree on how to fix the problem of differences in difficulty of the testing between state, or, to amend it (USA Today, 2014, para. 5). Consequently, there are several reasons given for the variant in difficulty in certain states:

  1. Immigrant students
  2. Low income students, and
  3. State requirement to raise expectation in the number of students who pass each year (USA Today, 2015, para.6).

As a result, of these facts, the essence of the federal law which is intended to close the achievement gap by realizing equal achievement with regard to students at disadvantage has failed and is biased.

The Violation of Civil Rights is a Violation of Ethics

Fourthly, educators across the nation are seeming at their wits end and are of great travail concerning the premise of federal testing calling the test biased, however, advocates of civil rights concerning the original intent offer justice and equality as the Department of Education pronounced that biased testing is a civil rights issue and an ethical one as well. In an article, “Is it a student’s civil right to take a federally mandated standardized test?” author, Lyndsey Layton (2015) wrote:

Removing the requirement for annual testing would be a devastating step backward, for it is very hard to make sure our education system is serving every child well when we don’t have reliable, comparable achievement data on every child every year,” Kati Haycock, president of the Education Trust, said in recent testimony before the Senate education panel. Her group joined 20 civil rights organizations to lobby Congress to keep the requirement to test all children each year in math and ­reading (Layton, 2015, para. 4).

However, is this statement a fair assumption to say that the removal of the federal test is against civil rights? Conversely, teachers agree that teaching the test while forsaking the art of creativity and free expression surely takes away human rights of the student to think for themselves.

In an interview, a former educator and social worker detailed what many instructors go through in teaching and testing. During her interview, Jacqueline James (2015) was asked to (a) Recount factors of her work, (b) Factors leading to the testing being biased in her opinion, (c) Why she left the school system, (d) What the morale was like for students and faculty, and (e) Suggestion of changes that would contribute to the law.

She wrote:

Hello Everyone,

My name is Jacqueline Jordan. I have five years experience in the school system, including, elementary, middle and high school education. I held positions as substitute teacher, assistant and as a social worker. I also hold a Bachelor of Social Science with a minor in Education, and a Master of Education with a minor in Public Policy; as well as, a Master of Organizational Management.

As an educator, some of the main factors that were attributed to our work was tied to testing. Hence, the main issues were that I and other educators were frustrated that our students’ performance was not meeting expectations. Conversely, exam scores were lower than previous years and we spent many days and months trying to figure out why our students were struggling, and after interviewing students in their perspective classes and schools we were told that they did not understand the question. Therefore, it was determined that the questions on the tests had nothing in common with how certain groups of children think or rationalize.

I feel the testing is biased due to the overall testing results for students who otherwise pass their assignment during the entire school year only to take the test and fail. Moreover, the testing is set for certain populations of students who may be at a disadvantage. Hence, from my experience many racial minorities struggle to pass the test because of no relation to what they have learned, and neither to their personal lives. This too, is one of the reasons I left the district, because I feel it is not fair to our minority students.

Honestly speaking, the morale for the majority of faculty was low because of dissatisfaction in the work. Consequently, low morale among the faculty was the reason for high turnover in staff and low performance, and frankly, from my viewpoint the student morale was lower due to many not being able to understand, nor, were they accurately understand the assignments given. Hence, this occurrence caused behavioral issues, students skipping class, incomplete assignments and or unfocused students without the ability to engage. Therefore, all this overall also caused parents to feel as if their children were not being effectively taught by the school system which added to all parties being frustrated—parents, students and faculty. In general, the environment for most students was stressful due to non-relational material.

There are quite a few areas to policy and procedures that I would like to see amended:

  1. Teachers should not have to teach from a manual and or for a test.
  2. The material learned should be based on real world solutions.
  3. The students success and being promoted should not be based on the one test, especially when the student works diligently throughout the year to pass their assignments otherwise (Jacqueline Jordan, interview by Kayla Daily, October, 11, 2015, 4:19 p.m., interview Electronic Communication).

Dispelling Myths

A fifth reason, brings attention to a telling fact of how the academic success of students may be hampered is the myth that black students are not as smart as white or non black students, and this assumption may certainly seem realistic if one places judgement in relation to test scores, however, one would have something other than assumption to rely on. Jencks & Phillips (1998) argued that theorists promote the idea that low scores are attached to family background and or family environment which can be taken generally to say that all black people are dumb, unable to learn, and thus, unable these factors in turn can affect; or rather, do affect test scoring.

The authors explained:

In 1978 the Nigerian anthropologist John Ogbu suggested that cast-like minorities throughout the world tended to do poorly in school, even when they were visually indistinguishable from the majority. Later, Ogbu argued that because blacks had such limited opportunities in America, they developed an ‘oppositional’ culture that equated academic success with ‘acting white’ (Jencks & Phillips, 1998, p.6, para.4).

In general, the rejection of assumptive views tend to hide bias, or rather lend to biased thinking, and along with the awareness that there may bias lurking amidst the exams one can also be aware that text books containing the answers are not made available to the impoverished districts. In her interview, Jacqueline James (2015) alluded to that fact saying that ‘the children’ said they did not understand the questions (James, 2015). Hence, this begs the question that asks if the children do not understand even though the educators are teaching the tests then there is more than an agenda set up for their fail, and why is there a manual to teach from instead of a book? Could it be that the curriculum for the exam is not being taught? In this instance, a proposed plan for a policy amendment or rewrite is simple, either stop the federal exam or make the materials needed for the exam available to all students everywhere. In other words, there is no gap if there is not one continually created. Accordingly, the US Department of Education has promised equal access to education for all students. Hence, if one is to support the breach in civil rights as advocacy outlines then one would need to consider the evidence presented speaking of no access to testing materials equally, and the propensity that the teachers are given manual over the actual textbook. Therefore, the premise of testing as a civil right has been breached and has failed, because not only are teachers hindered but there is pressure for them to teach what they do not know may be the wrong material.

The No Child Left behind Act is a Breach of Budgeting

In an article, there is evidence that federal funding may be misappropriated. Hence, with funding and budget cuts so steep there must be need to look further into the matter. It is the case, that “Prior to 2001 and the implementation of the law that appropriations went up only $3 billion per year”, however, after are up 64% according to a CBS News report. Elizabeth Harrington (2011) wrote that from the years 2000 to 2001 the appropriation rate increased by 9%. However, after implementation of the program appropriations were up to 33% which is $42 billion (2001) and climbed to $56.2 billion (2002). Hence, it is notable that more funds are spent yearly, yet, the children fail more so even with all the programming.

Here is a further breakdown of expenditures according to CBS News (2011) report:

  • 1997 – $33.52 billion
  • 1998 – $35.67 billion
  • 1999 – $38.31 billion
  • 2000 – $38.44 billion
  • 2001 – $42.06 billion
  • 2002 – $56.17 billion
  • 2003 – $63.25 billion
  • 2004 – $67.21 billion
  • 2005 – $71.47 billion
  • 2006 – $100.04 billion (due to a jump in Federal Family Education Loans)
  • 2007 – $67.12 billion
  • 2008 – $68.57 billion
  • 2009 – $138.00 billion (regular spending of $39.88 billion plus $98.23 billion under the Recovery Act)
  • 2010 – $63.00 billion (Harrington, 2011, para.4).

There is no need to address the overall budget implemented concerning the NCLB when there is evidence of an astronomical amount of federal dollars spent even while the children fail at a rapid pace yearly. Hence, this begs the question where does the money really go? There is no reauthorization needed, no restore of the same disparaging occurrence as it relates to the law. That said, policymakers must address these issues immediately and reconsider their programming is not working and is wasting away tax payer dollars.

Lips & Fienberg (2007) wrote, that “Federally funded full time employees in state education agencies worked to implement education programs three times more than the number of employees working at the Department of Education (Lips & Fienberg, 2007, para. 3). Hence, here are workers making money for programing that is no good when the consideration should be on the text books, and other needed materials that make for a successful test score. There has already been evidence brought that the children understand that they do not understand the questions on the test when they have worked all year to learn. In essence, more money should be spent in the school to pay the districts’ teachers, and less money for programming that does not work. Therefore, the only cut to budget should state in policy to quit bogus federal government expenditures, because after all paying the teachers and funding the school so that all is equal access is the mission of NCLB.

Summary

The NCLB has failed to do what it was created to do in closing the achievement gap academically, because the children still fail and is in breach of promise. There is variance in the degree of difficulty involving the exam across states which promotes the premise of biased testing standards and is in breach of policy as the occurrence does not promote equality; and, which leads to a breach of civil rights.  The academic success of students has been hampered severely because of myths that non whites cannot learn as favorably as white students. Hence, this thought is promoted further as it relates to tests scores more favorable to the white students. There is evidence that federal budget as it pertains to NCLB may be misappropriated where money is spent implementing programs rather than actual research to find error in testing.

Conclusion

Finally, as it pertains to amendment the NCLB has left a disparaging mood among educators across the nation to adamantly lift up a cry out for those who stand to lose more from standardized testing. It is the case that the states have failed the students of which the need for educational equality is upheld. Hence, for blacks and other minorities who will take their place in the world, that is,  a world in need of equality where their fate should not be determined by a test. Hence, the premise of education and all its characteristics should say in policy all is equal, and not according to multiple choice, unless the multiples of choices are discerned from a creative mind with the ability to think its way through the problems presented with logic and sound reasoning. Policy makers should then, take the evidence presented here; along with, the research provided to make sound judgments and see that what is happening in the school system is questionable, and is not equal access as the law is written. Rewrite it then, make it plain to all that you mean what you say is the cry of all who speak of civil rights, on the streets and now in education. Notably, change will come—with an equal policy that truly stands with all accepted as equal.

Related Articles  

Why Poor Schools Can’t Win at Standardized Testing

Not Child Left Behind is not Closing a Racial Gap

Education Spending Up 64% Under No Child Left Behind But Test Scores Improve Little

The Black-White Test Score Gap. CHAPTER ONE  

The Administrative Burden of No Child Left Behind 

Is it a student’s civil right to take a federally mandated standardized test?

Report: Half of US Schools Fail Federal Standards

How No Child Left Behind Benefits African Americans 

Civil Rights: The Fight to be Equal with God

Selma_to_Montgomery_MarchesTo be discriminated against in America is so common that those who live in the wake of it come to expect it in some form or another daily if they are awakened to see it. In fact, to be black in America is rough, difficult to be so; however, the problem is not the people who are progenitors of racism and discrimination it is the people who believe themselves equal to the whites perception of themselves. This is not to say that in any way should so called blacks be continually mistreated, or to place themselves in harms way; however, to come to a realistic view and see that if white people see themselves as God in their own eyes, and they rule the country—then also in their eyes every single person that comes to America willingly or not is considered to be, or should become a servant. Consequently,  there is a problem with thinking that everyone should be a servant, and the problem with that thought is those who feel that way have a tendency to mistreat people. Another view is that people who are descendants of slave owners typically have a mindset that America, the nation is theirs because they built it, and that if their money paid for the country to become great; then  regardless of how they came about that money while committing immoral acts against mankind in their minds they are God, that is, God has the money, God owns the land, God writes the policy, God is America’s Dream, and because of this thinking of themselves as God by the white people others should just look over the fact that GOD is racist. In this article there is discussion concerning current policy in regards to civil rights initiatives so called blacks pursuit to become like God.

The Fight to be like God

Of course, today, with President Obama’s position as head of the country some people  may consider that there is not discrimination any longer, or that the country has had a breakthrough since he took office, however, the election of a mixed race only adds fuel to the fact that Obama is half black and half God to the whites, or rather, a pawn to be used by those who to many in their own minds are GOD. In explanation, the CEO of the National Policy Institute, Sam Dickson (2014) spoke concerning the policy set  during the writing of the Declaration of Independence for the country’s break with their motherland Britain, In his video, “America: The God that Failed”, he said that the section of the declaration which speaks about ‘inalienable rights’ was taken off the paper of Britain’s document and placed into the American one. In that he stated that “a man without a country” cannot possibly have the type dedication to the cause of those who call America their home and built it (Dickson, 2014). Speaking frankly,  Dickson is saying that no one can be equal with God–one nation under God rule. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, was created from legislature in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution that mentions rhetoric such as ‘alienable rights given by God—life , liberty and pursuit of freedom’, and ,’ all men are created equal’; however, at the time of the signing did not include blacks. Further, a realistic view of this is that no one can be what God says he is not—equal or otherwise, and it is a fair statement to say that words written by God becomes law. Consequently, here one should be reminded that the three-fifth human clause has yet to be amended. It is the case that great strides have been made as  result of rallies of civil disobedience to God, and notably the subservient blacks did not ask for much.

Initiatives in the Fight to be like God

Dye (2010) wrote that there are differences of opinion concerning racism in the country where whites think not much of it and do not think it a problem, and blacks see it differently stating there is a serious problem with racism (Dye, 2010).  Although, civil rights issues most popular are covered in the legislation there are others that have yet to be such as police brutality which is really brutality by God in uniform and the right to not be murdered in the streets, unarmed like dogs is an ongoing pursuit. Hence, the initiatives set pertaining to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is paled in comparison to these unsolved. More specifically, civil pursuits of equality  to be like God have been broad and include many milestones in the rights of people of color in all areas of living—mainly protection against discrimination for:  (a) publics places, but not the right to assemble peaceably, but also includes equal access to schools and or equal access to, restaurants, restrooms, (b) outlaw of Jim Crowe laws which prevented access to voting, (c) employment for black people and equal pay standards, and (d) housing which include mortgage lending discrimination and the tendency for landlords to be slum lords. Presently, however, there have been several amendments to the act which now include protection to women in the work place and working while pregnant, right to choice of healthcare, gay or sodomite marriage rights, right to not be bullied, and several court related rights that are written also but are still unequal in quality and perception in the pursuit to be God’s equal. For example, although there is legislation to state that negroes can work along side God instead of being relegated to back doors, cleaning God’s toilet or watching God’s children black women can now work alongside white women and may be as  qualified even more so in some cases or equally as qualified but still make less than their non black colleagues. Additionally, black women and men are lowest paid who work along side their white colleagues, and who all are degreed status; however, here is where the inequality lies, that is, blacks chosen last over whites and even if chosen are paid considerably less than whites and this occurrence can happen in the hiring process. In explanation consider the following scenario:

A local auto parts company is hiring for a management position. After the interviews, however, the Human Resources Department has narrowed the search for a manager down to two candidates who both hold the degreed status required for the position, and they both have the required amount of management experience needed– their names are Christopher Columbus, and Michael Spears. Hence, unable to decide between the two the hiring manager calls both in for a second interview. In the interviews; however, no salary is ever discussed, but  in a meeting between the hiring manager and her boss is where the salary for the position was initially decided that the position would pay $32,000 per year. Additionally, after the interviews the team decides that they will not hire Christopher Columbus and call Michael in for a third and final interview where they will offer his package at that time. Subsequently, at the interview they tell Michael that the position pays $10.00 an hour which is $19,200 per year instead of the $32,000 a year that the hiring managers had previously planned to offer. Hence, this begs the question and asks why? It is the case, that not only is Michael an African American but the team sees that as a chance to save money, and decided that he has the skills needed to fit the job description; however, their decision to not pay him equally as unto the white candidate because of his race is discrimination.

The Right to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness equal to God

How unfortunate, that anyone living in a country as great as America would be subjugated to such biases and discrimination, and one could say that the white man was discriminated against as well, however, the opportunity will await the white over black in greater measure. Moreover,  this type discrimination is difficult to prove and applicants should obtain the ability to seek out information regarding pay in a field or for positions before applying. Generally, however, in the interview applicants are discouraged from raising questions about pay before the subject is brought up. Hence, this occurrence removes any chance of the applicant being warned concerning the agenda against them. In his address concerning women and equal pay discrimination, President Obama stated that unequal pay is not just a woman’s issue but a family issue and the aforementioned scenario addresses that more so, because men are still the heads of the household in many cases, and although in so called black families there are women who are forced into the role of head of the house there is a need for men to be paid as much as white men in the workplace so they too can take care of their families.

President Obama wrote concerning the  Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act:

Because while this bill bears her name, Lilly knows this story isn’t just about her. It’s the story of women across this country still earning just 78 cents for every dollar men earn – women of color even less – which means that today, in the year 2009, countless women are still losing thousands of dollars in salary, income and retirement savings over the course of a lifetime. But equal pay is by no means just a women’s issue – it’s a family issue. It’s about parents who find themselves with less money for tuition or child care; couples who wind up with less to retire on; households where, when one breadwinner is paid less than she deserves, that’s the difference between affording the mortgage – or not; between keeping the heat on, or paying the doctor’s bills – or not. And in this economy, when so many folks are already working harder for less and struggling to get by, the last thing they can afford is losing part of each month’s paycheck to simple discrimination. So in signing this bill today, I intend to send a clear message: That making our economy work means making sure it works for everyone. That there are no second class citizens in our workplaces, and that it’s not just unfair and illegal – but bad for business – to pay someone less because of their gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion or disability. And that justice isn’t about some abstract legal theory, or footnote in a casebook – it’s about how our laws affect the daily realities of people’s lives: their ability to make a living and care for their families and achieve their goals (Obama, 2015).

Notably, the pursuit in the fight to be equal to God is ongoing for both genders of the black race, and future policies should reflect change in the areas of: (a) three fifth human amendment, (b) raising the minimum raise, (c) equal fair pay for black men and women, according to their educational level, and more thought and effort placed on anti-bullying legislation to include police brutality.

In the strides to become equal to God, blacks have not gained strides equal to whites in the fifty plus years of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 execution. Moreover, in the shadow of the attitude of  whites in America blacks made a huge mistake in the supposed fight of equality, that is, that God cannot accept the people who they crossed the Atlantic to steal them  from their families, a people of culture, of a continent of African people who were sold into slavery. In addition, so called blacks would be wise to remember that in the eyes of America the slaves cannot be equal to their master whether in education, the workplace, health or welfare, that the servant is not equal to their God, and pursuit to find a place equal is for the white man a dream but for the black man in America who covet such a place has become a nightmare. That a said the pursuit continues.

Related Articles

 America: The God that Failed

Dye, T.R. (2010).  Understanding public policy (13th ed.).  Longman: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780205757428. Custom ISBN: 9781256054160

 Strengthening Civil Rights 

Civil Rights Issues

OCBC Bank Case Study: An Analysis

ocbcc813eLong gone are the days when people had to fight for suitable treatment in the work place. At least for some employees who wake up to go to the old nine to five suitable treatment is a reality where employers and managers not only care about the state of the company, but the state of welling being of the people who serve to make their company successful. OCBC Bank of Singapore, has been that suitable company for nearly eighty years through strategic contribution, in which OCBC Human Resources Management [HRM] as Morgan & Stark (2014) wrote concerning strategic contribution an organization must “Be able to be key contributors in their organizational success.(Morgan & Stark, 2014). In this article there is analysis of the OCBC contribution and company success through collaborative efforts of education and mentoring throughout the term of employment and beyond.
It is ironic that Pandy (2012) mentions “Human Capital ‘concerning their job pool, because in America there is rumor that some jobs are nothing more than labor farms, never investing anything into the help they hire. In fact, concerning this human capital and investment the OCBC Bank does invest and relay the message which says that their “Investment helps to build the capabilities of employees to deliver superior performance.” (Pandy, 2014).
In reference to talent management, according to the article OCBC’s investment includes:
(a) Learning—which includes ongoing business strategy, and
(b) (b) Aligning employee learning objectives with those of the business to suit their goals to help employees build a career not just a job. (Pandy, 2012).
For example, the Career Best Program is a three year program for new hires (2007), and the OCBC Learning Academy, also known as the Learning Space @OCBC.
To further boost their employees, the OCBC Bank has excellent talent management, even, for their former employees where management attempts to with job placement efforts. For those employees with extraordinary talent there is a first deb to job openings within the company which according to Pandy (2012) “Pushes high potential talent out of their comfort zones”. There is also rotating schedule to give employee an opportunity to learn everything there is to know about the work, and to, develop new skills. This rotation in turn helps productivity (Pandy, 2012). In addition, there is also travel opportunity accompanied by senior management. Hence for all the aforementioned investments in their employee pool OCBC allows for sustainability as The OCBC Group (2015) wrote:

We have a structured three-year development program that charts the learning roadmaps for every employee during their first 3 years of service. Employees have opportunities to hone their skills through on-the-job training, in-house training programs, courses and other management development program. Our employees are encouraged to take charge of their own careers through our Career Best Program. This program allows them to evaluate their strengths and career orientation, and find the best fit between their talents and OCBC’s organizational needs. Through our Internal Job-Posting program, we provide employees the choice to pursue job opportunities across the OCBC Group, locally and overseas. This career mobility opportunity is key to attracting and retaining talents in the organization. Overseas postings are offered to employees who have the right skill sets and aspire to gain work experience in the different markets that we operate in. (The OCBC Group, 2015, para. 1).

The following are added benefits and topics of interest of being a talent at the OCBC Bank, according to The OCBC Group (2015):
1. Work-life Integration
2. Online health and security dashboard
3. Labor regulations
4. Relationships with unions
Comparatively, Wells Fargo gave tips to keep ones employees motivated as well: (a) Learn how employee training and open communication can improve employee retention, (b) Welcome the new hires to motivate on the first day, (c) Offer new challenges, including new roles, (d) Invest in training which might include seminars, workshops and mentoring by senior staff, (e) Keep the lines of communication open, and (f) Fulfill management needs. Wells Fargo gave review of a study which notes:

One study showed that employees receiving predominantly negative feedback from their managers were over 20 times more likely to be engaged than those receiving little or no feedback, proving that any form of feedback from an employer is better than none at all [Keep the Lines of Communication Open Section].

Though similar in context for this article Wells Fargo does not expound on programs aimed to educate their employees for better productivity past the first day of welcome.
In another article, Yasimine Yahya (2013) wrote of OCBC Bank:

This is becoming ever more important as increasing numbers of OCBC’s clients are doing business outside Singapore. “If we want to serve them well, we need to be able to communicate with them on the same wavelength as they know about the markets,” he said. Other employee schemes include the Future Leaders Program, which identifies high-potential staff and grooms them for top management roles. (Yahya, 2013).

In conclusion, the OCBC Bank of Singapore takes interest in their employees by first educating their employees to welcome them in the first three years of their work life with the company much like a mom would nurture her babe while learning to walk, while, Wells Fargo welcomes their employees on the first day which makes that special, but what about the next day or even years activities? Conversely, seminars, workshops and programs are great, however. OCBC Bank’s dedication to an entire floor further cements engagement tactics for present tense situations. All and all, the OCBC Bank’s care of its employees allow longevity of employment to add employee morale, plus, productivity in the workplace.

Push Pull Strategy in Business Marketing

Pull strategy progression: promotion, customer, retailer, and manufacturer. Push strategy progression: manufacturer, retailer, promotion, and customer.

Photo by: Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Integrated marketing communications: Advertising, public relations, and more. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.


The three sales strategies for promotion are push, pull and as Ogden & Ogden (2014) wrote, “there can be a combination of the two”(Ogden & Ogden, 2014).

As illustrated in Figure 6.4, the push and pull strategy works thus: (a) the promotion which prompts potential retailers and customers to buy, (b) the deal between the manufacturer and the service provider.


For example, in purchasing my daughter’s tablet some months ago from Sam’s club the tablet came with a limited manufacturer’s warranty, and I also had the options to purchase an additional extension warranty from Sam’s. It is the case, that the tablet malfunctioned and as a result the manufacturer after several attempts to repair it had to replace it. Then a few months after that my daughter tripped over the dog outside [he is a big dog] and broke the screen on the tablet, Sam’s warranty refunded the full purchase price for that brand stating that the screen was too expensive to repair. This type service is a good promotion tactic for retailers and manufacturers alike.

Finally, (c) the promotion to the customer, and it is the case, that Black Friday is a good promotional tactic where people fat from the holiday turkey are ready to spend. It is past sane thinking why people would get up at three in the morning to stand in line for a sale, however, the tradition lives on for those who want first tab at new line Jordan’s or even first dibs at a new television. Hence, the push, pull strategy works well for all who aim to buy and sell.

Business Law and Ethics|Legal Underpinnings of Business Law

images (5)  Today it is apparent that businesses in the United States have had problems with their owners’ and managers’ practices of being transparent and free from fraudulent activity concerning  dealings with partners, employees and consumers. It is the case, that many people have been harmed because of a business collapse under unethical leadership tactics.

In explanation, of unethical leadership tactics within a company the repercussions of such activities can be detrimental to not only consumers, but investors and employees. In preparedness for these kinds of situations the United States Congress has developed, and passed laws to thwart shady dealing by shady corporations; such as the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and the Consumer Protection Act of 2010; as well as, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau [CFPB] which for all purposes as noted by Seaquest (2012), “Increased oversight of the financial industry and was a preventative measure to risk taking and deceptive practices in areas such as mortgage lending” [The Regulatory Environment Section; para 1].

Concerning regulating the business environment –standards have been set that would protect both business and consumer. In this article, however, the businesses are deemed small and there is discussion of the Tinker and Taylor’s Home Security Service owners who have taken on certain business titles and by law have specific responsibilities when they breach a contract; such as is found in (a) Sole Proprietorship, (b) General Partnership, (c) Limited Partnership [LP], (d) Corporation [Corp], and (e) Limited Liability Company [LLC].

In business law, both parties enter into a contractual or verbal  agreement which says that Tinker’s Home Security Service install their systems free and monitor them monthly for a standard cost of 48.00 plus applicable sales tax per state allowance. In the first analogy of sole proprietorship Tinker and Taylor’s Home Security Service is being sued. Here are the problems with sole proprietorship as determined by the people at SBA.gov (2014) who state the disadvantages are that they could face sole liability (SBA, 2014) which makes sense since they own the business by and for themselves.

Here are the disadvantages to starting this type of business, but can also suffice to conditions that they could face in court:

  1. Unlimited personal liability. Because there is no legal separation between you and your business, you can be held personally liable for the debts and obligations of the business. [In this case, a suit takes money to defend oneself, that is, in the case of obtaining an attorney].
  2. Hard to raise money. Sole proprietors often face challenges when trying to raise money. [In this case, a sole proprietor’s money is not separated from home and business in the instance of cash flow. In essence, most people who own such businesses could consider this business their sole livelihood so extra money for court fees, unless, the owner sues a customer is out of pocket].
  3. Heavy burden. The flipside of complete control is the burden and pressure it can impose. You alone are ultimately responsible for the successes and failures of your business. [Hence, it is the case that a failure for the business could be a law suit which can impose harm to the business; such as damages paid out] [Disadvantages proprietorship Section] [Emphasis added].

In the case of the General Partnership for Tinker and Taylor’s Home Security Service establishing the business was relatively an easy one there was not application with the state and all was needed was for the partners basically to know how to install the systems, however, since the suit is against them the partners cannot agree to which the suit should attributed. After all they are both owners of the entity and since both own both are responsible. There are risks that can be gathered here, or rather, be taken heed of for future reference. In the article, “Sole Proprietorship and General Partnerships are Risky Business” the pronunciation of the risk stated, “If you are a co-owner of a business, and you have not formally created a corporation, LLC, limited liability partnership, limited partnership, or a limited liability limited partnership, you are operating a general partnership. This means that you have unlimited, personal liability for all of the businesses debts, including the acts of employees. In addition, in a general partnership, you also have unlimited, personal liability for the acts of all of the other owners” [Partnership Liability is a Major Risk Section; para. 1]. Therefore, the risk of being General Partner is provoked in the lawsuit. It is the case, that the acts or non-acts of either are the responsibility of both.

For example, in the initial installation of the alarm Partner 1 damages a wall in the home of the consumer and does a shabby job with the alarm so that he malfunctions often. Partner 2 states that damage to the wall is not his responsibility since he did not do the installation because Partner 1 took the call and the repair to the wall should come from Partner 1 since he started the business. Partner 1 screams that he cannot afford such a hit on his already taxed expenses and so forth. In reality Partner 1 did the damage, but since they are partners the damage belongs to both.

In review of the Limited Partnership [LP], the owners of the Tinker and Taylor’s Home Security Service the lawsuit may be more favorable. In this instance what comes to mind would be a sign to tell consumers that ‘Owners are not responsible for damage resulting from installation’ or something more outstanding to inform the customer that basically they are not paying for it, and for this reasons consumers’ should beware of getting professional help. However, if one knows their neighbor is good at what he does who needs assurance? So here is a good reason for a more acceptable outcome in court, according to Stephanie Morrow (2005), author of the article “LLC or LP: What’s Best for Your Business?”

She wrote:

An LP has one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. The general partners participate in management and have 100% liability for partnership obligations. Limited partners cannot participate in the management and have no liability for partnership obligations beyond their capital contributions, protecting them against personal liability for the partnership’s debts and other obligations. They do, however, receive a share of the profits for their involvement as limited partners. Many partnerships are formed as LPs because the limited liability is attractive to passive investors. It is often easier to market limited partner interests as an investment and general partners can raise money without involving outside investors in the management of the business. Assets are also protected in an LP. Unlike a corporation, which allows a shareholder’s stock to be confiscated in a personal lawsuit, an LP has provisions that protect a partner’s interest from being taken away when that partner is sued personally [What is an LP Company Section; para.1].

In essence, in a limited partnership the implications here are that there is no liability beyond that of their contributions. In other words, shareholders have no say in the functioning of management from day to day. Hence, for the Tinker and Taylor’s Home Security Service their breach of contract lies with the owners, Tinker and Taylor not the members who contribute and neither their investment in the company as stated above. For example, Partner 1 is accused of defrauding the customer in their free installation agreement and receives a bill that ultimately goes unpaid and is now on the customer’s credit is not the fault of the partners who have limited claim to the company but the actual owners.

Tinker and Taylor’s Home Security Service, as a Limited Liability Company [LLC] and a Corporation are similar, in that a Limited Liability Company has some of the same exact features as a Corporation, but the question is would how would a breach of promise affect the LLC, or would the two be affected the same? In an LLC company Morrow (2005) wrote:

An LLC is a hybrid business organization that mixes the best of corporations, partnerships, and sole proprietorships. Each owner (also called a member) of an LLC has limited liability like a stockholder of a corporation. LLCs allow any entity, including individuals, partnerships, trusts, estates, corporations, or other LLCs to be owners. They also offer greater flexibility than corporations—like no limits on the number of members—yet they have the tax advantages of a partnership, such as pass-through taxable income and losses [What is a Limited Liability Company? Section; para.1].

So it is fair to say that as an LLC all members are not privy to lawsuits. In essence, we can see that in larger corporations although managers in smaller entities might be privy to lawsuits not all of the players are included in these, such as breach of contract. However, big corporal giants can be included in class action suits such as discrimination and some class action suits are privy to lawsuits such as overcharges and overbilling; however, one might need to narrow down the identity clause there and go after individuals, because identity is difficult to prove with larger corporations seeing there are many business inside the one entity.

There are several descriptions related to the lawsuit against Tinker and Taylor’s Home Security Service and their different establishments; as well as their approach to the breach of contract  suit which in review of the outcome notes that (a) for sole proprietor there will be loss in consideration to damages, (b) the general partnership has as much responsibility to damages in a law suit even if the blame is caused by an employee whether of acts or none acts of the company both partners are held accountable, (c) for LP the liability is more favorable for the partners in that they are more protected, however, the owners are still held accountable, and (d) LLC and Corporations, as mentioned, are not all privy to lawsuits because not all partners are involved as like investor, or rather silent partners. However, there can still be suits brought against individual companies or those who own them. In essence, the outcome here is that sole proprietorship and general partners is taking on a huge risk.

 

Watch: The Secret to Starting a Small Business Online

 

Sources:

Sole Proprietorship and General Partnerships are Risky Business. Business Owner’s Toolkit.

 Corporation Definition

Choose Your Business Structure.

Seaquist, G. (2012). Business law for managers. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

 What’s Best for Your Business?