A Call to Amendment: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

No_Child_Left_Behind_Act

Overview

The No Child Left behind Act of 2001, established during the Bush administration would ensure that all children receive fair and equal access to quality education. More specifically, in 2002, the policy required that all states test their students in reading, and math starting from grades three through grade eight, and again when the student reached high school level where students were to meet or exceed reading and math requirements. In addition, the act would help close the gap of achievement for students [according to the United States Department of Education] by providing quality education where focus was on (a) accountability and assurance to disadvantaged children, (b) flexibility that allowed federal funds to be used to improve student achievement, (c) research based education which placed emphasis on programs and practices that proved effective through scientific research, and (d) parent options which provided choices for Title 1 school parents (No Child Left Behind Act 2001). However, at present, the policy though well written has not taken shape, and neither has there been offered relief to support all students for which the policy was created other than to transfer a student passing from the school where the environment has become academically unsafe. Moreover, because of racial disparities and economic conditions such as poverty in districts the children are further subjugated to even poorer learning environments where there are meager classroom materials and less than adequate instruction. Therefore, this article will propose change to the current policy,  an amendment;  along with, recommendations to abolish areas where the policy has been breached by providing information which is overlooked and or ignored in current more up to date research concerning the No Child Left Behind Act overall.

Problems with Current Policy

Firstly, there are a number of reoccurring problems with standard testing as it pertains to the NCLB Act, and these must be dealt with to ensure that all students taking the exam have equal success. It is the case, that nearly every child entering the public school system [particularly] among the African American and Hispanic students exhibit ongoing failure even while there is instruction for the same.  Hence, the occurrence of such failure among the students would beg the question to ask is it really a fact that students are dumb or dumbed down?  Reportedly, blacks currently score lower on vocabulary, reading and math tests; including, measurement of aptitude and intelligence than European Americans, and the authors stated that “On some tests the typical American black still scores below 75 percent of the American whites on the same test (Jencks & Phillips, 1998, para.1). Accordingly, teachers/educators are required to ‘teach’ the test rather than teaching regular curriculum that stimulates the intellect, or creativity in the student. It is the case that much of the school year is taken over with this type programing, and the morale of both students and educators is low because of failure to pass the test. Hence, armed with this information the premise of reauthorization of the act is of no regard. Consequently, the premise of reauthorization only acts to restore previously enacted documents which to date have failed to yield positive results. As a result, the failure of the practice in testing students has not fulfilled the element of improved research. Therefore, a total amendment, and or more acceptable replacement is needed.

Secondly, the promise to close the achievement gap as enacted by law has failed, and reportedly, the gap has not been lessoned for years. According to a New York Times (2009) article, “’No Child’ Law is not Closing the Racial Gap”, it is apparent there has not been an improvement in years.

Sam Dillion (2009) wrote:

Between the year 2004 and 2009 when the article was written that even though black and Hispanic elementary, middle and high school students all scored much higher on the federal test than three decades ago most of the gains made were not recent but during the desegregation efforts of the 1970s and 80s and was well before the No Child law which in the official description admonishes to close the achievement gap (Dillon, 2009, para. 3).

The Official Description

SEC. 1. SHORT TITLE

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday, the third day of January, two thousand and one.

An Act

To close the achievement gap with accountability, flexibility, and choice, so that no child is left behind. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled [No Child Left Section 1].

According to the Center of Education Policy (as reported by USA Today), there are 43,000 schools in the US that fail, or have failed which means 48 percent of students have made no progress since the enactment of the law. This information is troubling, because the only relief noticeable to parents is the opportunity once a child fails to transfer to a district passing. Hence, this too brings problems added to problems when transportation becomes a problem. Nevertheless, the report is telling that in Wisconsin (for example) the failure was extremely low at 11 percent. In explanation, of the failed standards for the federal exam policymakers have predicted failure rates of 82 percent, however, there are claims as well that the statistics are in error. In essence, to keep with the premise of requirement by law that every student perform at grade level by the year 2014 is impossible and has failed according to some educators (USA Today, 2014, para.1).

Thirdly, there is variance in the degree of difficulty as it pertains to the standardized testing. For example, in some school districts there are different tests given. In the USA Today article there is information given to that effect. The authors wrote, “State’s scores varied widely”. For example, in Georgia, 27% of schools did not meet targets, compared to 81% in Massachusetts and 16% in Kansas” In addition, the authors stated that even state officials argue that the act is do for rewrite, and further that officials offer little hope when lawmakers cannot agree on how to fix the problem of differences in difficulty of the testing between state, or, to amend it (USA Today, 2014, para. 5). Consequently, there are several reasons given for the variant in difficulty in certain states:

  1. Immigrant students
  2. Low income students, and
  3. State requirement to raise expectation in the number of students who pass each year (USA Today, 2015, para.6).

As a result, of these facts, the essence of the federal law which is intended to close the achievement gap by realizing equal achievement with regard to students at disadvantage has failed and is biased.

The Violation of Civil Rights is a Violation of Ethics

Fourthly, educators across the nation are seeming at their wits end and are of great travail concerning the premise of federal testing calling the test biased, however, advocates of civil rights concerning the original intent offer justice and equality as the Department of Education pronounced that biased testing is a civil rights issue and an ethical one as well. In an article, “Is it a student’s civil right to take a federally mandated standardized test?” author, Lyndsey Layton (2015) wrote:

Removing the requirement for annual testing would be a devastating step backward, for it is very hard to make sure our education system is serving every child well when we don’t have reliable, comparable achievement data on every child every year,” Kati Haycock, president of the Education Trust, said in recent testimony before the Senate education panel. Her group joined 20 civil rights organizations to lobby Congress to keep the requirement to test all children each year in math and ­reading (Layton, 2015, para. 4).

However, is this statement a fair assumption to say that the removal of the federal test is against civil rights? Conversely, teachers agree that teaching the test while forsaking the art of creativity and free expression surely takes away human rights of the student to think for themselves.

In an interview, a former educator and social worker detailed what many instructors go through in teaching and testing. During her interview, Jacqueline James (2015) was asked to (a) Recount factors of her work, (b) Factors leading to the testing being biased in her opinion, (c) Why she left the school system, (d) What the morale was like for students and faculty, and (e) Suggestion of changes that would contribute to the law.

She wrote:

Hello Everyone,

My name is Jacqueline Jordan. I have five years experience in the school system, including, elementary, middle and high school education. I held positions as substitute teacher, assistant and as a social worker. I also hold a Bachelor of Social Science with a minor in Education, and a Master of Education with a minor in Public Policy; as well as, a Master of Organizational Management.

As an educator, some of the main factors that were attributed to our work was tied to testing. Hence, the main issues were that I and other educators were frustrated that our students’ performance was not meeting expectations. Conversely, exam scores were lower than previous years and we spent many days and months trying to figure out why our students were struggling, and after interviewing students in their perspective classes and schools we were told that they did not understand the question. Therefore, it was determined that the questions on the tests had nothing in common with how certain groups of children think or rationalize.

I feel the testing is biased due to the overall testing results for students who otherwise pass their assignment during the entire school year only to take the test and fail. Moreover, the testing is set for certain populations of students who may be at a disadvantage. Hence, from my experience many racial minorities struggle to pass the test because of no relation to what they have learned, and neither to their personal lives. This too, is one of the reasons I left the district, because I feel it is not fair to our minority students.

Honestly speaking, the morale for the majority of faculty was low because of dissatisfaction in the work. Consequently, low morale among the faculty was the reason for high turnover in staff and low performance, and frankly, from my viewpoint the student morale was lower due to many not being able to understand, nor, were they accurately understand the assignments given. Hence, this occurrence caused behavioral issues, students skipping class, incomplete assignments and or unfocused students without the ability to engage. Therefore, all this overall also caused parents to feel as if their children were not being effectively taught by the school system which added to all parties being frustrated—parents, students and faculty. In general, the environment for most students was stressful due to non-relational material.

There are quite a few areas to policy and procedures that I would like to see amended:

  1. Teachers should not have to teach from a manual and or for a test.
  2. The material learned should be based on real world solutions.
  3. The students success and being promoted should not be based on the one test, especially when the student works diligently throughout the year to pass their assignments otherwise (Jacqueline Jordan, interview by Kayla Daily, October, 11, 2015, 4:19 p.m., interview Electronic Communication).

Dispelling Myths

A fifth reason, brings attention to a telling fact of how the academic success of students may be hampered is the myth that black students are not as smart as white or non black students, and this assumption may certainly seem realistic if one places judgement in relation to test scores, however, one would have something other than assumption to rely on. Jencks & Phillips (1998) argued that theorists promote the idea that low scores are attached to family background and or family environment which can be taken generally to say that all black people are dumb, unable to learn, and thus, unable these factors in turn can affect; or rather, do affect test scoring.

The authors explained:

In 1978 the Nigerian anthropologist John Ogbu suggested that cast-like minorities throughout the world tended to do poorly in school, even when they were visually indistinguishable from the majority. Later, Ogbu argued that because blacks had such limited opportunities in America, they developed an ‘oppositional’ culture that equated academic success with ‘acting white’ (Jencks & Phillips, 1998, p.6, para.4).

In general, the rejection of assumptive views tend to hide bias, or rather lend to biased thinking, and along with the awareness that there may bias lurking amidst the exams one can also be aware that text books containing the answers are not made available to the impoverished districts. In her interview, Jacqueline James (2015) alluded to that fact saying that ‘the children’ said they did not understand the questions (James, 2015). Hence, this begs the question that asks if the children do not understand even though the educators are teaching the tests then there is more than an agenda set up for their fail, and why is there a manual to teach from instead of a book? Could it be that the curriculum for the exam is not being taught? In this instance, a proposed plan for a policy amendment or rewrite is simple, either stop the federal exam or make the materials needed for the exam available to all students everywhere. In other words, there is no gap if there is not one continually created. Accordingly, the US Department of Education has promised equal access to education for all students. Hence, if one is to support the breach in civil rights as advocacy outlines then one would need to consider the evidence presented speaking of no access to testing materials equally, and the propensity that the teachers are given manual over the actual textbook. Therefore, the premise of testing as a civil right has been breached and has failed, because not only are teachers hindered but there is pressure for them to teach what they do not know may be the wrong material.

The No Child Left behind Act is a Breach of Budgeting

In an article, there is evidence that federal funding may be misappropriated. Hence, with funding and budget cuts so steep there must be need to look further into the matter. It is the case, that “Prior to 2001 and the implementation of the law that appropriations went up only $3 billion per year”, however, after are up 64% according to a CBS News report. Elizabeth Harrington (2011) wrote that from the years 2000 to 2001 the appropriation rate increased by 9%. However, after implementation of the program appropriations were up to 33% which is $42 billion (2001) and climbed to $56.2 billion (2002). Hence, it is notable that more funds are spent yearly, yet, the children fail more so even with all the programming.

Here is a further breakdown of expenditures according to CBS News (2011) report:

  • 1997 – $33.52 billion
  • 1998 – $35.67 billion
  • 1999 – $38.31 billion
  • 2000 – $38.44 billion
  • 2001 – $42.06 billion
  • 2002 – $56.17 billion
  • 2003 – $63.25 billion
  • 2004 – $67.21 billion
  • 2005 – $71.47 billion
  • 2006 – $100.04 billion (due to a jump in Federal Family Education Loans)
  • 2007 – $67.12 billion
  • 2008 – $68.57 billion
  • 2009 – $138.00 billion (regular spending of $39.88 billion plus $98.23 billion under the Recovery Act)
  • 2010 – $63.00 billion (Harrington, 2011, para.4).

There is no need to address the overall budget implemented concerning the NCLB when there is evidence of an astronomical amount of federal dollars spent even while the children fail at a rapid pace yearly. Hence, this begs the question where does the money really go? There is no reauthorization needed, no restore of the same disparaging occurrence as it relates to the law. That said, policymakers must address these issues immediately and reconsider their programming is not working and is wasting away tax payer dollars.

Lips & Fienberg (2007) wrote, that “Federally funded full time employees in state education agencies worked to implement education programs three times more than the number of employees working at the Department of Education (Lips & Fienberg, 2007, para. 3). Hence, here are workers making money for programing that is no good when the consideration should be on the text books, and other needed materials that make for a successful test score. There has already been evidence brought that the children understand that they do not understand the questions on the test when they have worked all year to learn. In essence, more money should be spent in the school to pay the districts’ teachers, and less money for programming that does not work. Therefore, the only cut to budget should state in policy to quit bogus federal government expenditures, because after all paying the teachers and funding the school so that all is equal access is the mission of NCLB.

Summary

The NCLB has failed to do what it was created to do in closing the achievement gap academically, because the children still fail and is in breach of promise. There is variance in the degree of difficulty involving the exam across states which promotes the premise of biased testing standards and is in breach of policy as the occurrence does not promote equality; and, which leads to a breach of civil rights.  The academic success of students has been hampered severely because of myths that non whites cannot learn as favorably as white students. Hence, this thought is promoted further as it relates to tests scores more favorable to the white students. There is evidence that federal budget as it pertains to NCLB may be misappropriated where money is spent implementing programs rather than actual research to find error in testing.

Conclusion

Finally, as it pertains to amendment the NCLB has left a disparaging mood among educators across the nation to adamantly lift up a cry out for those who stand to lose more from standardized testing. It is the case that the states have failed the students of which the need for educational equality is upheld. Hence, for blacks and other minorities who will take their place in the world, that is,  a world in need of equality where their fate should not be determined by a test. Hence, the premise of education and all its characteristics should say in policy all is equal, and not according to multiple choice, unless the multiples of choices are discerned from a creative mind with the ability to think its way through the problems presented with logic and sound reasoning. Policy makers should then, take the evidence presented here; along with, the research provided to make sound judgments and see that what is happening in the school system is questionable, and is not equal access as the law is written. Rewrite it then, make it plain to all that you mean what you say is the cry of all who speak of civil rights, on the streets and now in education. Notably, change will come—with an equal policy that truly stands with all accepted as equal.

Related Articles  

Why Poor Schools Can’t Win at Standardized Testing

Not Child Left Behind is not Closing a Racial Gap

Education Spending Up 64% Under No Child Left Behind But Test Scores Improve Little

The Black-White Test Score Gap. CHAPTER ONE  

The Administrative Burden of No Child Left Behind 

Is it a student’s civil right to take a federally mandated standardized test?

Report: Half of US Schools Fail Federal Standards

How No Child Left Behind Benefits African Americans 

Performance Evaluation and Standardized Testing

Test-Clip-art-640x330The ideal of performance budgeting carries with it some noticeable flaws.

For example, a budget of this type can be seen in the educational venue and the public schools where there is concern with standardized testing, and is a form of control in certain programs offered to  districts by the federal government. In essence, this type performance standard can be useful in other programs but not school, because it puts some students at a disadvantage even more , and today, instead of actually teaching subjects students are subjugated to perform for tests, untaught testing for some and most fail.

Meredith Broussard (2014) wrote:
The companies that create the most important state and national exams also publish textbooks that contain many of the answers. Unfortunately, low-income school districts can’t afford to buy them. (Broussard, 2014).So if the answers for the text are in the books and a particular the district cannot afford the book then why are children taking a text on something they have no way of learning?
It is fair to say that public means federal government so that the propensity for the government knowingly withholding funds in areas where there is lack is unconstitutional. This may be a tad off topic, but how can performance based assessments be tied to funding? Does it make sense for a public education system to do that?

Notably, are these low performing schools even included in the budget planning on federal or state level?

Of course the government should utilize and maintain performance budgets for agencies they support. However, the question to ask is if the agency supported is keeping in line with their supposed mission concerning (a) their various boards, (b) their workers, in this instance, their faculty, and (c) their students.

Mission

ED’s mission is to promote student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access. Congress established the U.S. Department of Education (ED) on May 4, 1980, in the Department of Education Organization Act (Public Law 96-88 of October 1979). Under this law, ED’s mission is to:

  • Strengthen the Federal commitment to assuring access to equal educational opportunity for every individual;
  • Supplement and complement the efforts of states, the local school systems and other instrumentalities of the states, the private sector, public and private nonprofit educational research institutions, community-based organizations, parents, and students to improve the quality of education;
  • Encourage the increased involvement of the public, parents, and students in Federal education programs;
  • Promote improvements in the quality and usefulness of education through Federally supported research, evaluation, and sharing of information;
  • Improve the coordination of Federal education programs;
  • Improve the management of Federal education activities; and
  • Increase the accountability of Federal education programs to the President, the Congress, and the public (U.S. Department of Education, 2015).

Performance budgeting does not evaluate wholly what is being taught in the subject matter but to testing. In other words, ask is the testing necessary to pass the class?For example, it is not difficult to see that if a bus is in need of repair then why would you continually allow people to board the bus? No, the bus would be taken off the street until the necessary repairs are made, or it would be replaced altogether. Or, why continue to allow people to board buses in disrepair on one part of the city while on another side of the city the best buses are offered and used? See then if the budget is allocated for public transit then the public is all inclusive not based on the performance of the buses but solely based on the needs of the people.

See then that the scenario for the performance budget and school fits as well and reflects bias because the students are the passengers and the system in need of repair.

According to the TIME  (2012) article, the exact information is given:

Do standardized achievement tests unfairly advantage white and Asian students and disadvantage the rest? According to a group of educational organizations and civil rights groups the answer is yes. The recently filed a complaint with the U.S. Department of Education pointing out that black and Latino students in New York score below whites and Asians on standardized tests so consistently that although they are almost 70% of the overall student body, they are only 11% of students enrolled at elite public schools. As a result, the complaint argues that New York City is in violation of the 1964 Civil Rights Act because schools rely on a test that advantages one racial group over another. (TIME, 2012).

In this way,  yes performance budgeting might be needed, however, not this way. Evaluate the teachers, but not because of their ability to teach a test that they do not have answers to and most certainly do not punish the students for not learning what they have not been taught.

Related Articles

Why Poor Schools Can’t Win at Standardized Testing

Why It’s Time to Get Rid of Standardized Tests

US Department of Education Mission Statement

What is the Third Interview for?

Stock Traders Conducting InterviewLet’s talk about the first, second, and third interview process which is a selection process for many organizations.

Gone are the days of immediate hire, or rather, on the spot. It is the case that with unemployment rates rocketing for some parts of the nation a selection process would be wise, and a chance to screen out and eliminate.

I had the opportunity to experience such before, however; for some organizations, or industries such where one will work the phones some have their first interview right over the phone.

Why the third and a fourth interview then?  

Tory Johnson (2015), CEO of Women for Hire wrote:

Some companies start with a phone screening and then move to face-to-face interaction. Other companies start with an HR behavioral interview and then move on to an interview with the manager you’d be reporting to, then invite you in for testing. Still others require several interviews with several members of the team you’ll be working with. It’s perfectly alright to ask during your first interview what to expect, but often the process will change depending on the level of job you’re looking for and the number of candidates the company is considering. Second interviews (and any interviews beyond that) should be treated with as much professionalism as the first meeting. At this point you know they’re interested, but you have a few more runs around the bend before reaching that finish line. A huge mistake job seekers make is thinking the second interview is just a formality. You don’t have the job yet. Follow these tips to make sure you’re in top form ’til the very, very end (Johnson, 2015, para. 2).

For me, I thought the process a good one. As a jobseeker I want to learn all I can about a company just in case I am hired beyond my own research. It is important for me to work with honest people just as I am sure its important for them as I am.

In times past, or rather, through the years of the job hunt there has only been I fill out the application, get a call, the interview and then hire. However, this is minimal information compared to the wealth out there to be learned for some companies. Hence, in light of this I can arm myself with appropriate answers that may be appropriate depending on the interview.

Morgan & Stark (2014) gave a list to determine mental capabilities stating that there are a number of tests or evaluations to be given which determine the minds of perspective employees. To name a few, they are, (a) The Big Five Personality traits, (b) Core Self Evaluations,  and (c) Emotional Intelligence.


In essence, I believe that the company gets a good employee by digging into their minds beforehand.

 

 Related Article

Ace the second Interview…and the Third

OCBC Bank Case Study: An Analysis

ocbcc813eLong gone are the days when people had to fight for suitable treatment in the work place. At least for some employees who wake up to go to the old nine to five suitable treatment is a reality where employers and managers not only care about the state of the company, but the state of welling being of the people who serve to make their company successful. OCBC Bank of Singapore, has been that suitable company for nearly eighty years through strategic contribution, in which OCBC Human Resources Management [HRM] as Morgan & Stark (2014) wrote concerning strategic contribution an organization must “Be able to be key contributors in their organizational success.(Morgan & Stark, 2014). In this article there is analysis of the OCBC contribution and company success through collaborative efforts of education and mentoring throughout the term of employment and beyond.
It is ironic that Pandy (2012) mentions “Human Capital ‘concerning their job pool, because in America there is rumor that some jobs are nothing more than labor farms, never investing anything into the help they hire. In fact, concerning this human capital and investment the OCBC Bank does invest and relay the message which says that their “Investment helps to build the capabilities of employees to deliver superior performance.” (Pandy, 2014).
In reference to talent management, according to the article OCBC’s investment includes:
(a) Learning—which includes ongoing business strategy, and
(b) (b) Aligning employee learning objectives with those of the business to suit their goals to help employees build a career not just a job. (Pandy, 2012).
For example, the Career Best Program is a three year program for new hires (2007), and the OCBC Learning Academy, also known as the Learning Space @OCBC.
To further boost their employees, the OCBC Bank has excellent talent management, even, for their former employees where management attempts to with job placement efforts. For those employees with extraordinary talent there is a first deb to job openings within the company which according to Pandy (2012) “Pushes high potential talent out of their comfort zones”. There is also rotating schedule to give employee an opportunity to learn everything there is to know about the work, and to, develop new skills. This rotation in turn helps productivity (Pandy, 2012). In addition, there is also travel opportunity accompanied by senior management. Hence for all the aforementioned investments in their employee pool OCBC allows for sustainability as The OCBC Group (2015) wrote:

We have a structured three-year development program that charts the learning roadmaps for every employee during their first 3 years of service. Employees have opportunities to hone their skills through on-the-job training, in-house training programs, courses and other management development program. Our employees are encouraged to take charge of their own careers through our Career Best Program. This program allows them to evaluate their strengths and career orientation, and find the best fit between their talents and OCBC’s organizational needs. Through our Internal Job-Posting program, we provide employees the choice to pursue job opportunities across the OCBC Group, locally and overseas. This career mobility opportunity is key to attracting and retaining talents in the organization. Overseas postings are offered to employees who have the right skill sets and aspire to gain work experience in the different markets that we operate in. (The OCBC Group, 2015, para. 1).

The following are added benefits and topics of interest of being a talent at the OCBC Bank, according to The OCBC Group (2015):
1. Work-life Integration
2. Online health and security dashboard
3. Labor regulations
4. Relationships with unions
Comparatively, Wells Fargo gave tips to keep ones employees motivated as well: (a) Learn how employee training and open communication can improve employee retention, (b) Welcome the new hires to motivate on the first day, (c) Offer new challenges, including new roles, (d) Invest in training which might include seminars, workshops and mentoring by senior staff, (e) Keep the lines of communication open, and (f) Fulfill management needs. Wells Fargo gave review of a study which notes:

One study showed that employees receiving predominantly negative feedback from their managers were over 20 times more likely to be engaged than those receiving little or no feedback, proving that any form of feedback from an employer is better than none at all [Keep the Lines of Communication Open Section].

Though similar in context for this article Wells Fargo does not expound on programs aimed to educate their employees for better productivity past the first day of welcome.
In another article, Yasimine Yahya (2013) wrote of OCBC Bank:

This is becoming ever more important as increasing numbers of OCBC’s clients are doing business outside Singapore. “If we want to serve them well, we need to be able to communicate with them on the same wavelength as they know about the markets,” he said. Other employee schemes include the Future Leaders Program, which identifies high-potential staff and grooms them for top management roles. (Yahya, 2013).

In conclusion, the OCBC Bank of Singapore takes interest in their employees by first educating their employees to welcome them in the first three years of their work life with the company much like a mom would nurture her babe while learning to walk, while, Wells Fargo welcomes their employees on the first day which makes that special, but what about the next day or even years activities? Conversely, seminars, workshops and programs are great, however. OCBC Bank’s dedication to an entire floor further cements engagement tactics for present tense situations. All and all, the OCBC Bank’s care of its employees allow longevity of employment to add employee morale, plus, productivity in the workplace.

Push Pull Strategy in Business Marketing

Pull strategy progression: promotion, customer, retailer, and manufacturer. Push strategy progression: manufacturer, retailer, promotion, and customer.

Photo by: Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Integrated marketing communications: Advertising, public relations, and more. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.


The three sales strategies for promotion are push, pull and as Ogden & Ogden (2014) wrote, “there can be a combination of the two”(Ogden & Ogden, 2014).

As illustrated in Figure 6.4, the push and pull strategy works thus: (a) the promotion which prompts potential retailers and customers to buy, (b) the deal between the manufacturer and the service provider.


For example, in purchasing my daughter’s tablet some months ago from Sam’s club the tablet came with a limited manufacturer’s warranty, and I also had the options to purchase an additional extension warranty from Sam’s. It is the case, that the tablet malfunctioned and as a result the manufacturer after several attempts to repair it had to replace it. Then a few months after that my daughter tripped over the dog outside [he is a big dog] and broke the screen on the tablet, Sam’s warranty refunded the full purchase price for that brand stating that the screen was too expensive to repair. This type service is a good promotion tactic for retailers and manufacturers alike.

Finally, (c) the promotion to the customer, and it is the case, that Black Friday is a good promotional tactic where people fat from the holiday turkey are ready to spend. It is past sane thinking why people would get up at three in the morning to stand in line for a sale, however, the tradition lives on for those who want first tab at new line Jordan’s or even first dibs at a new television. Hence, the push, pull strategy works well for all who aim to buy and sell.