A Logical Approach to Healthcare Reform and Models

The Kellogg Foundation (2002) presents a guide that aims to thoroughly assist in the building up of an organization’s need to improve and or expand on to help the consumer. Hence the model presented by Kellogg  includes: (a) Input (b) Activities, (c) Output, (d) Outcomes, and (e) Impact.

Inputs

Inputs include the consumer (s) who in this instance are patients (for example) who utilize the services provided by the organization. Since patients generally use a facility and or referred to a facility for this discussion let us say that the facility to look at is Kindred Healthcare.  Kindred Healthcare is the nation’s largest health provider, including, nursing, rehabilitation, assisted living, transitional care, home care, and hospice.

Additionally, included in inputs are providers (physicians and nurses), along with payers’ which is inclusive of insurance carriers and state funding, the staff (administrative) and any other technical assistance from external sources. Hence, with the exception of the consumer all other inputs have a hand in meeting the needs of the patient through their system.

Activities

The activities for providers is that these have an active participation in the reform process. First, one would need to understand that to reform something there was a problem. For example, the Affordable Reform Act ensures that all people in the US can receive adequate and professional healthcare, and along with that the staff includes community decision making (Kellogg, 2004).

Outputs

Outputs for providers include more effective distribution of community care resources. For example, Kindred claims to help their patients recover fully in the best setting suitable for their specific care needs so supposedly they have state of the art facilities and equipment to meet the needs of their consumers, or rather patients. Conversely, the administrative process includes data, policy and advocacy, such as the Kindred Code of Conduct which stress that the company acts with integrity.

Outcomes

For outcomes and providers, that is Kindred Health Care should present a comprehensive healthcare delivery system, and the staff the outcomes are community assessment.

Impact

If the providers do all they say this should lead to improved health status for their patients, and for staff an increased healthcare system efficiency.

However, Rowan (2000) explained, “A variety of logic models can be used to describe the plans for implementation and expected outcomes of reform (Rowan, 2000). Consequently, concerning the Kellogg Model the outcome and implementation for that would work well if healthcare companies, their providers, their staff, and any external help they require have strict ethical policies in place. Hence, my analysis here is that though this logic model is sound; and, for the most part, healthcare companies might adhere to it—Kindred hospital has not and has breached all aspects of this model.

According to Kellogg (2004), “Outcome approach logic models display the interrelationships between specific program activities and their outcomes”.

I thought that I would mention Kindred Hospital here because from what I see of this model there is no adherence to it, that is,  if the model is used as a standard for healthcare companies (See: United States Army Disabled Veteran, Sergeant Kericia E. Smith Faces Third Heartbreaking Trauma of Her Life).

Source:
W.K. Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide

School Work: Advice Government Agencies -Welfare to Work and JIT

welfare-employment-street-signThe welfare to work program, food stamps and other programs have been criticized. Mainly because of stereotypical thinking of a group and partly (also) because of systematic racism. Hence, for the purpose of this discussion, or rather to keep in line with the prompt of choice  to say the scenario consists of my leading a government agency compromised of one thousand employees who in their job description assists below poverty level families with no father in the home, single parent homes to see how that program is measuring up. In essence, performance measurement of the welfare to work program, and food stamps back to work initiatives.

Advice

Ask evaluation questions. According to Harell et al (n.d) a good performance measurement system should begin with clear evaluative questions. Hence, each department should ask those, or ask (a) did the program have the intended impact? -or- (b) did the program have the intended consequences? These two questions along support positive and or negative results (Harrell et al n.d).

Performance Monitoring. An important question to ask here concerning those adults who participate in the program (s) would be is there a significant number increase in adults who are successful. For example, one of the programs that support participants going back to work is the JIT program, or rather Just In Time Training. Hence, is there a significant increase of adults who enter the program to learn a particular skill that leave the welfare system?

Or rather, look at the fact that state agencies and or programs are being asked to reduce their caseloads. Hence, is Just in Time Training [sufficient] in helping people get back to work

In the graph we see that from the years 1994 to 2010 Families with Children in poverty has increased to 7 million families, however, the estimate of 7 million now includes jobless families with children with AFDC/TANF families at five million over previous years. These indicators reflect that now not only are there generational TANF recipients but also an added measure of people applying for benefits because of loss of employment. Subsequently, the premise here of those who are on welfare is significantly changed. Just in Time Training should give people new skills to return to workforce, or enter the workforce. Also, there is indication that in 2010 the participants in the TANF program dropped significantly to 2 million from 5 million in 1994. Is this because of the welfare to work program or something else?
Recent changes to the federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant place new pressures on states to reduce their welfare caseloads and increase the number of families participating in work activities or face financial penalties. At the same time, the new rules make it harder for states to design effective welfare-to-work programs, particularly for those recipients who face the greatest barriers to employment. This policy brief analyzes these challenges in the context of Texas’ welfare program and proposes a set of policy changes designed to help Texas meet the federal requirements while improving outcomes for welfare recipients (Center of public Policy Priorities, 2007).

Process Evaluation. These questions should ask how the program operates and documents procedures and activities. For example, are there workshops, mandatory participation even for those receiving unemployment benefits

And finally,

Cost Evaluation

How much does the program cost?

Related Articles

Evaluation Strategies for Human Services Programs| A Guide for Policymakers and Providers

 TANF Emerging from the Downturn a Weaker Safety Net

. A NEW WELFARE-TO-WORK APPROACH FOR 

Purifying Mind Body & Spirit to Help

download (10)“One of the things I learnt when I was negotiating was that until I changed myself I could not change others”—Nelson Mandela

That is a true and powerful statement, and I say that because it has taken me many years to get to the point of seeing myself as a “good work” started. That good work has only been made a reality because of my changed mind. I changed my mind about myself, and have tried to live down what other people think about me and develop some kind of moral compass and believe in (not only) what I aspire to help with, but also what I believe will help. In essence, I can only help with what I am allowing (or have allowed) my self to get help with.

If I have not mentioned that I am in counseling, and understand that some people might believe that sharing such personal information is telling ones business. However, I do not see it like that, but do see if I cannot get help then I cannot help anyone, then it is a weakness on my part.

For one thing, I have to ask myself if I aspire to help women then how can I do that if I cannot go and bear all to become free to help? I cannot say that I will help women in whatever manner if I am still angry, or unforgiving, or bogged down with grief. So then, I seek to help myself, thereby, changing myself to become a woman who can help. Therefore, if I aspire to help in any area, such as women need that “to Innovate, Inform, Influence, Inspire” (The Dailey Grind, 2016) then I must change myself. Additionally, some situations we live out change us, some challenge us; however, the most change comes when we do introspection to look deeply into what we need to work [out] within us to save ourselves first.

Concerning our work, and the changes we seek to make, and or, those we work with—or participants. I must say that I cannot hear a team, work with a group if I have issues to address and that are unmet. I believe this is why there are colleagues who do not work well together in collaboration, or are not well matched in the negotiation stage. Consequently, many people might come together for a cause but coming together requires as Spiro (2011) mentions, ‘that leaders be ready’, and goes back to me and counseling to ‘prepare’ myself for the work.

Probably the change I seek is more deeper rooted than many because (like those I help) I speak from a place I have lived already—a place from the heart of the change. Hence, perhaps it would be well to gather other ideas and opinions during the planning. For example, assessing the readiness of the individuals involved” as mentioned Spiro (2011) who asked if people were on the same page concerning the change, or rather, do people have prior experience with functionally illiterate clients? Have they been in the past functionally illiterate? “Do participants speak the same language when it comes to the strategy? Not only the same words, but the same meaning? (26). So what does my team bring with them to the planning of this action?

Are shared values supported? In essence, even those learners, those affected –are all speaking the same language? Ultimately, one should ask how else are we going to help alleviate and rescue the people who are suffering whether in the class or in life outside of the classroom in our every day lives.

Reference
Spiro, J. (2011). Leading change step-by-step: Tactics, tools, and tales. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.TEAME-Green-Teabags_banner

Technology in the Classroom|Part III-Integrating Multimedia

To Read: Part I, Part II

Integrating Multimedia

Integrating Multimedia slide show

Integrating Multimedia slide show

Concerning videos and other materials brought into the classroom an instructor has need to watch or read them first to make sure the content of the work is age appropriate for their learners. Since our class is tenth grade all materials and sites are relevant to the context of the prompts and are made age appropriate by making mandatory sites available through research beforehand and adding those sites to the prompt also give a wealth of information to the student. Consequently, as a teacher without the foresight that YouTube can also be filled with racism and hateful remarks young researchers and learners can become discouraged.

Therefore, keyword searches may be discouraged in the classroom for these prompts which is a disadvantage. Hence, questions are to be considered when video is integrated into lesson planning. According to the Sociological Cinema (2012), teacher should determine relevance, and ask does the material advance learning? Does the material illustrate or amplify? There is also need to evaluate it, according to author, that is, does it meet student, university, or community standards? Is it offensive? Is it disparaging? Is the material disturbing? (Sociological Cinema, 2012).

Other important needs to address when incorporating video in the lesson are venue, video time, and how to test on the subject of watched outside of the classroom.
Other challenges of integrating technology in the learning environment
It may seem less of a challenge to design and or implement a technology based lesson if one is a per subject teacher [i.e, history teacher], but what about the homeschool parent as teacher, or homeschool teachers who instruct on every topic? Will parents have a greater chance of integrating technology into their lessons if they use it? Yes, they will but parents need to learn the what, when, how and why of technology and then move on to the integration more so than the teachers in a public school classroom. Hence, there remains a challenge of teaching out of ignorance. It is the case, that there are still homes that are not technology literate other than using the phone to talk.

The goal then is to use technology at home as a teaching, and learning tool and if one teaches elsewhere then they too are more likely to integrate that literacy of technology. In an Edutopia (2009) article, Technology Integration begins at home the author wrote:

At home — that’s my answer. You see, I think many educators are more apt to carry technology use over from their personal lives into their professional ones than to take it on as a new part of their job. A teacher who uses a digital camera to share images of a home remodel as email attachments with her grown children has begun to understand the power of digital communication in a personal way. A teacher who uses online resources to plan a trip has begun to understand the power of the Web in answering any question one is curious enough about to ask. Once they experience the power and ease of current digital photography or Web-based research in their personal lives, the stage is set for helping them bring technology into their classroom teaching (Edutopia, 2009, para.4)

Conclusion
The integration or use of the internet in the classroom promotes literacy of research, use of browsers and URL’s while invoking critical and logical thinking among all personalities of learners. The use of mind mapping tools allows students to access subjects and or concepts through step by step capabilities, and allow additional material and thought to be added born from that. The use of PowerPoint or presentations through technology in the classroom promote fun, engagement, and graphics to what could originally be a bland topic; and allow, freedom of expression which can help educators to see what the student knows. The use of internet video as a technology in the classroom can be used to introduce subject content, and thus, eliminate boring or uninteresting lectures.
Related Articles & Suggested Readings
United Nations Educations, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
Technology Integration Begins at Home
Harnack, A & Kleppinger, E., (1997). Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources. St. Martin’s Press, Inc. New York, NY. ISBN: 0-312-15023
Lever-Duffy, J. & McDonald, J. B. (2015). Teaching and learning with technology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education
What is Mind Mapping? (and How to Get Started Immediately)
Multiple Intelligences
The Arab Muslim Slave Trade of Africans 
The African Slave Trade and the Middle Passage 
Organization of the Slave Trade
The Transatlantic Slave Trade Database
PowerPoint in the Classroom 
 Best Practices for Using Video in the Classroom 
Effective Use of PowerPoint 
 Islam: Empire of Faith [Documentary] 
 Creating Mind Maps from Google Docs

Integrating Technology in the Classroom|Part II-Analyzing the Integration

To read Part I

Analyzing the integration of technology into the prompts —
The use of mind mapping, or brainstorming tools in the classroom is an integral component of teaching and learning with technology. In example, Howard Gardner stated that students, or rather, people in general learn differently. Hence, the classroom is where teachers are required to gear instruction to meet the need every student. For example, addition of the mind map, or creation can meet the needs of personality types such as: (a) Visual-Spatial, (b) Musical, (c) Interpersonal, (d) Intrapersonal (e) Linguistic, and (f) Logical-Mathematical.

Further, in example regarding the personalities a logical-mathematical thinker would find values tied with the timeline giving dates of events and noting those more effectively than a bodily-kinesthetic type personality on this project even going as far as to calculate other information that could be relevant to the assignment. Generally speaking, however, each type can be multi-fauceted where learners are prone to more than one way of thinking, or can adapt while visual learners may do well with maps on the project. There are also other benefits to the mind map tool, according to Litemind, (2015).

Gardener's Multiple Intelligence

Gardener’s Multiple Intelligence

They are:
• Note taking
• Brainstorming (individually or in groups)
• Problem solving
• Studying and memorization
• Planning
• Researching and consolidating information from multiple sources
• Presenting information
• Gaining insight on complex subjects
• Jogging your creativity (para.4).
Internet research and resources concerning teaching and learning with technology are a necessity probably over all educational literacy because of the World Wide Web and the wealth of information found there, and since the assignment is dealing with the slave trade then the multiple intelligences work well here for learners who need to learn truth about themselves.

Simply put, visual-spatial, musical, inter-intrapersonal, linguistic, and even logical thinkers can appreciate the information they will find on the internet versus what is generally being taught in the public schools. In example, the instructions tell the student to research databases such as slave voyages which could allow the African American student [never meeting their ancestors or knowing anything other than slavery] to know how their people were forced to travel during the Middle Passage, or what caused such a great tribulation.

In addition, the student(s) may gain insight into a culture never shared, or visited outside of the American way of life. Accordingly, a student can travel back in time to learn what the name of the ship was, and even the names of those people. In essence, an interpersonal experience, rather, than an intrapersonal one involving many groups.

On the other hand, since the assignment involves European, Muslim, Africans in content then all groups of people can share in the assignment, though, one experience may be more emotional over the others depending on the information; and is also dependent, on who is learning it. In essence, the expected outcome of the assignment is to incite curiosity in the student as well as developing skills in using the internet in research.

Hanack & Kleppinger (1997), explained:

The Internet links computers together around the world, and when you’re connected to the internet one can communicate with people, schools, organizations, governments, businesses—anyone who has a computer with and internet connection (p.13).

Further, the internet works well in classroom activities such as the slave trade research because students learn to work interdependently or independently. A challenge, however, to research on the internet is avoiding plagiarism. The exercise, or rather all the exercise require that the student present valid and ethical information from sources they gather. Hence, proper documentation and citing of sources is critical when presenting materials. The exercise, then is preparatory for college where critical work is needed in the area of honesty and integrity in writing. Adding URL’s is a key concept as well for this type assignment.

Watch: Multiple Intelligences

Other aspects of teaching and learning with internet research as the technology is:
1. Understanding the internet
2. Researching a specific topic
3. Searching with internet tools
4. Finding a document’s URL
5. Using MLA Style to cite and document sources, and or works sited (Hanack & Kleppinger, 1997, pg.65).
The selected technology for the Muslim religion is internet video, however, PowerPoint has been added to invade thinking, that is, to understand what the learner has taken from the video to present their thoughts combined with further research. YouTube, as a focal point, or rather as a tool to develop an outline holds the key to much sound information such as the thinking concerning public opinion. For example, the government broadcasts speeches, and other news broadcasts can be found there that may be good for the assignment. The prompt gives video as an outline for students to form other evaluative type thinking.

For example, in order to know ‘what elements are unique in Islam’ one would have need to seek further for what is not unique in other religions. In other words, to consider something unique one would have to look past the name Muhammad in Islam, or Christ in Christianity which are common names to their worshippers and ask what is uncommon? So the exercise requires more than one way of thinking. All of the multiple intelligences are at work here and can benefit from the exercise, especially logical and inductive skills, in that, students in their research learn to deduce validity of arguments. Therefore, the United States citizens who blame the Muslim religion for terrorism may come to the conclusion that it is not the Muslims but the Americans who are the terrorist based on their own research. For this exercise and PowerPoint the outcome is to present graphics, video, oratorical work that dispels myths to bring validity to the claim that Muslims are terrorist, or debunking it.

Using PowerPoint in the Classroom

Using PowerPoint in the Classroom

With regard to all  the exercises, and while keeping in line with the thought that though these prompts are history –these lessons are learned in real time. Hence, instructors and teachers should be more prepared with not only technology, but with the mind that as a guide there can be no bias to show up in the lessons or the planning thereof. It is the case, that since public school is basic study the instructor should strive to bring truth to the lesson by bringing facts that have been omitted in history, or inciting the aspect of logical thinking into the lesson. This, however, requires one who can thinking logically themselves. Hence, one who teaches should always remain teachable.
Advantages of using PowerPoint Presentations in classroom are:
• Engaging multiple learning styles
• Increasing visual impact
• Improving audience focus
• Providing annotations and highlights
• Analyzing and synthesizing complexities
• Enriching curriculum with interdisciplinary
• Increasing spontaneity and interactivity, and
• Increasing wonder (University of Central Florida, 2016, para. 2).
Also noted by Teach-ology (2016) that PowerPoint as a technology tool in the classroom for students and teachers is that (a) PowerPoint is fun to watch and fun to make, (b) Used correctly, PowerPoint can accommodate all learners’ needs, (c) It has a spell-check function! Something our black boards and overheads lack, (d) It motivates students when used in moderation, (e) It motivates staff, (f) PowerPoint allows you to reflect on your lesson and correct any needed changes. Finally, you can create the perfect lesson, (g) Imagine to be able to print out what you did in class for students that were absent. Better yet, turn the accountability on to students and post your presentations on-line, and (h) PowerPoint is not hard to learn [What’s Good About PowerPoint Section].

A Call to Amendment: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

No_Child_Left_Behind_Act

Overview

The No Child Left behind Act of 2001, established during the Bush administration would ensure that all children receive fair and equal access to quality education. More specifically, in 2002, the policy required that all states test their students in reading, and math starting from grades three through grade eight, and again when the student reached high school level where students were to meet or exceed reading and math requirements. In addition, the act would help close the gap of achievement for students [according to the United States Department of Education] by providing quality education where focus was on (a) accountability and assurance to disadvantaged children, (b) flexibility that allowed federal funds to be used to improve student achievement, (c) research based education which placed emphasis on programs and practices that proved effective through scientific research, and (d) parent options which provided choices for Title 1 school parents (No Child Left Behind Act 2001). However, at present, the policy though well written has not taken shape, and neither has there been offered relief to support all students for which the policy was created other than to transfer a student passing from the school where the environment has become academically unsafe. Moreover, because of racial disparities and economic conditions such as poverty in districts the children are further subjugated to even poorer learning environments where there are meager classroom materials and less than adequate instruction. Therefore, this article will propose change to the current policy,  an amendment;  along with, recommendations to abolish areas where the policy has been breached by providing information which is overlooked and or ignored in current more up to date research concerning the No Child Left Behind Act overall.

Problems with Current Policy

Firstly, there are a number of reoccurring problems with standard testing as it pertains to the NCLB Act, and these must be dealt with to ensure that all students taking the exam have equal success. It is the case, that nearly every child entering the public school system [particularly] among the African American and Hispanic students exhibit ongoing failure even while there is instruction for the same.  Hence, the occurrence of such failure among the students would beg the question to ask is it really a fact that students are dumb or dumbed down?  Reportedly, blacks currently score lower on vocabulary, reading and math tests; including, measurement of aptitude and intelligence than European Americans, and the authors stated that “On some tests the typical American black still scores below 75 percent of the American whites on the same test (Jencks & Phillips, 1998, para.1). Accordingly, teachers/educators are required to ‘teach’ the test rather than teaching regular curriculum that stimulates the intellect, or creativity in the student. It is the case that much of the school year is taken over with this type programing, and the morale of both students and educators is low because of failure to pass the test. Hence, armed with this information the premise of reauthorization of the act is of no regard. Consequently, the premise of reauthorization only acts to restore previously enacted documents which to date have failed to yield positive results. As a result, the failure of the practice in testing students has not fulfilled the element of improved research. Therefore, a total amendment, and or more acceptable replacement is needed.

Secondly, the promise to close the achievement gap as enacted by law has failed, and reportedly, the gap has not been lessoned for years. According to a New York Times (2009) article, “’No Child’ Law is not Closing the Racial Gap”, it is apparent there has not been an improvement in years.

Sam Dillion (2009) wrote:

Between the year 2004 and 2009 when the article was written that even though black and Hispanic elementary, middle and high school students all scored much higher on the federal test than three decades ago most of the gains made were not recent but during the desegregation efforts of the 1970s and 80s and was well before the No Child law which in the official description admonishes to close the achievement gap (Dillon, 2009, para. 3).

The Official Description

SEC. 1. SHORT TITLE

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday, the third day of January, two thousand and one.

An Act

To close the achievement gap with accountability, flexibility, and choice, so that no child is left behind. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled [No Child Left Section 1].

According to the Center of Education Policy (as reported by USA Today), there are 43,000 schools in the US that fail, or have failed which means 48 percent of students have made no progress since the enactment of the law. This information is troubling, because the only relief noticeable to parents is the opportunity once a child fails to transfer to a district passing. Hence, this too brings problems added to problems when transportation becomes a problem. Nevertheless, the report is telling that in Wisconsin (for example) the failure was extremely low at 11 percent. In explanation, of the failed standards for the federal exam policymakers have predicted failure rates of 82 percent, however, there are claims as well that the statistics are in error. In essence, to keep with the premise of requirement by law that every student perform at grade level by the year 2014 is impossible and has failed according to some educators (USA Today, 2014, para.1).

Thirdly, there is variance in the degree of difficulty as it pertains to the standardized testing. For example, in some school districts there are different tests given. In the USA Today article there is information given to that effect. The authors wrote, “State’s scores varied widely”. For example, in Georgia, 27% of schools did not meet targets, compared to 81% in Massachusetts and 16% in Kansas” In addition, the authors stated that even state officials argue that the act is do for rewrite, and further that officials offer little hope when lawmakers cannot agree on how to fix the problem of differences in difficulty of the testing between state, or, to amend it (USA Today, 2014, para. 5). Consequently, there are several reasons given for the variant in difficulty in certain states:

  1. Immigrant students
  2. Low income students, and
  3. State requirement to raise expectation in the number of students who pass each year (USA Today, 2015, para.6).

As a result, of these facts, the essence of the federal law which is intended to close the achievement gap by realizing equal achievement with regard to students at disadvantage has failed and is biased.

The Violation of Civil Rights is a Violation of Ethics

Fourthly, educators across the nation are seeming at their wits end and are of great travail concerning the premise of federal testing calling the test biased, however, advocates of civil rights concerning the original intent offer justice and equality as the Department of Education pronounced that biased testing is a civil rights issue and an ethical one as well. In an article, “Is it a student’s civil right to take a federally mandated standardized test?” author, Lyndsey Layton (2015) wrote:

Removing the requirement for annual testing would be a devastating step backward, for it is very hard to make sure our education system is serving every child well when we don’t have reliable, comparable achievement data on every child every year,” Kati Haycock, president of the Education Trust, said in recent testimony before the Senate education panel. Her group joined 20 civil rights organizations to lobby Congress to keep the requirement to test all children each year in math and ­reading (Layton, 2015, para. 4).

However, is this statement a fair assumption to say that the removal of the federal test is against civil rights? Conversely, teachers agree that teaching the test while forsaking the art of creativity and free expression surely takes away human rights of the student to think for themselves.

In an interview, a former educator and social worker detailed what many instructors go through in teaching and testing. During her interview, Jacqueline James (2015) was asked to (a) Recount factors of her work, (b) Factors leading to the testing being biased in her opinion, (c) Why she left the school system, (d) What the morale was like for students and faculty, and (e) Suggestion of changes that would contribute to the law.

She wrote:

Hello Everyone,

My name is Jacqueline Jordan. I have five years experience in the school system, including, elementary, middle and high school education. I held positions as substitute teacher, assistant and as a social worker. I also hold a Bachelor of Social Science with a minor in Education, and a Master of Education with a minor in Public Policy; as well as, a Master of Organizational Management.

As an educator, some of the main factors that were attributed to our work was tied to testing. Hence, the main issues were that I and other educators were frustrated that our students’ performance was not meeting expectations. Conversely, exam scores were lower than previous years and we spent many days and months trying to figure out why our students were struggling, and after interviewing students in their perspective classes and schools we were told that they did not understand the question. Therefore, it was determined that the questions on the tests had nothing in common with how certain groups of children think or rationalize.

I feel the testing is biased due to the overall testing results for students who otherwise pass their assignment during the entire school year only to take the test and fail. Moreover, the testing is set for certain populations of students who may be at a disadvantage. Hence, from my experience many racial minorities struggle to pass the test because of no relation to what they have learned, and neither to their personal lives. This too, is one of the reasons I left the district, because I feel it is not fair to our minority students.

Honestly speaking, the morale for the majority of faculty was low because of dissatisfaction in the work. Consequently, low morale among the faculty was the reason for high turnover in staff and low performance, and frankly, from my viewpoint the student morale was lower due to many not being able to understand, nor, were they accurately understand the assignments given. Hence, this occurrence caused behavioral issues, students skipping class, incomplete assignments and or unfocused students without the ability to engage. Therefore, all this overall also caused parents to feel as if their children were not being effectively taught by the school system which added to all parties being frustrated—parents, students and faculty. In general, the environment for most students was stressful due to non-relational material.

There are quite a few areas to policy and procedures that I would like to see amended:

  1. Teachers should not have to teach from a manual and or for a test.
  2. The material learned should be based on real world solutions.
  3. The students success and being promoted should not be based on the one test, especially when the student works diligently throughout the year to pass their assignments otherwise (Jacqueline Jordan, interview by Kayla Daily, October, 11, 2015, 4:19 p.m., interview Electronic Communication).

Dispelling Myths

A fifth reason, brings attention to a telling fact of how the academic success of students may be hampered is the myth that black students are not as smart as white or non black students, and this assumption may certainly seem realistic if one places judgement in relation to test scores, however, one would have something other than assumption to rely on. Jencks & Phillips (1998) argued that theorists promote the idea that low scores are attached to family background and or family environment which can be taken generally to say that all black people are dumb, unable to learn, and thus, unable these factors in turn can affect; or rather, do affect test scoring.

The authors explained:

In 1978 the Nigerian anthropologist John Ogbu suggested that cast-like minorities throughout the world tended to do poorly in school, even when they were visually indistinguishable from the majority. Later, Ogbu argued that because blacks had such limited opportunities in America, they developed an ‘oppositional’ culture that equated academic success with ‘acting white’ (Jencks & Phillips, 1998, p.6, para.4).

In general, the rejection of assumptive views tend to hide bias, or rather lend to biased thinking, and along with the awareness that there may bias lurking amidst the exams one can also be aware that text books containing the answers are not made available to the impoverished districts. In her interview, Jacqueline James (2015) alluded to that fact saying that ‘the children’ said they did not understand the questions (James, 2015). Hence, this begs the question that asks if the children do not understand even though the educators are teaching the tests then there is more than an agenda set up for their fail, and why is there a manual to teach from instead of a book? Could it be that the curriculum for the exam is not being taught? In this instance, a proposed plan for a policy amendment or rewrite is simple, either stop the federal exam or make the materials needed for the exam available to all students everywhere. In other words, there is no gap if there is not one continually created. Accordingly, the US Department of Education has promised equal access to education for all students. Hence, if one is to support the breach in civil rights as advocacy outlines then one would need to consider the evidence presented speaking of no access to testing materials equally, and the propensity that the teachers are given manual over the actual textbook. Therefore, the premise of testing as a civil right has been breached and has failed, because not only are teachers hindered but there is pressure for them to teach what they do not know may be the wrong material.

The No Child Left behind Act is a Breach of Budgeting

In an article, there is evidence that federal funding may be misappropriated. Hence, with funding and budget cuts so steep there must be need to look further into the matter. It is the case, that “Prior to 2001 and the implementation of the law that appropriations went up only $3 billion per year”, however, after are up 64% according to a CBS News report. Elizabeth Harrington (2011) wrote that from the years 2000 to 2001 the appropriation rate increased by 9%. However, after implementation of the program appropriations were up to 33% which is $42 billion (2001) and climbed to $56.2 billion (2002). Hence, it is notable that more funds are spent yearly, yet, the children fail more so even with all the programming.

Here is a further breakdown of expenditures according to CBS News (2011) report:

  • 1997 – $33.52 billion
  • 1998 – $35.67 billion
  • 1999 – $38.31 billion
  • 2000 – $38.44 billion
  • 2001 – $42.06 billion
  • 2002 – $56.17 billion
  • 2003 – $63.25 billion
  • 2004 – $67.21 billion
  • 2005 – $71.47 billion
  • 2006 – $100.04 billion (due to a jump in Federal Family Education Loans)
  • 2007 – $67.12 billion
  • 2008 – $68.57 billion
  • 2009 – $138.00 billion (regular spending of $39.88 billion plus $98.23 billion under the Recovery Act)
  • 2010 – $63.00 billion (Harrington, 2011, para.4).

There is no need to address the overall budget implemented concerning the NCLB when there is evidence of an astronomical amount of federal dollars spent even while the children fail at a rapid pace yearly. Hence, this begs the question where does the money really go? There is no reauthorization needed, no restore of the same disparaging occurrence as it relates to the law. That said, policymakers must address these issues immediately and reconsider their programming is not working and is wasting away tax payer dollars.

Lips & Fienberg (2007) wrote, that “Federally funded full time employees in state education agencies worked to implement education programs three times more than the number of employees working at the Department of Education (Lips & Fienberg, 2007, para. 3). Hence, here are workers making money for programing that is no good when the consideration should be on the text books, and other needed materials that make for a successful test score. There has already been evidence brought that the children understand that they do not understand the questions on the test when they have worked all year to learn. In essence, more money should be spent in the school to pay the districts’ teachers, and less money for programming that does not work. Therefore, the only cut to budget should state in policy to quit bogus federal government expenditures, because after all paying the teachers and funding the school so that all is equal access is the mission of NCLB.

Summary

The NCLB has failed to do what it was created to do in closing the achievement gap academically, because the children still fail and is in breach of promise. There is variance in the degree of difficulty involving the exam across states which promotes the premise of biased testing standards and is in breach of policy as the occurrence does not promote equality; and, which leads to a breach of civil rights.  The academic success of students has been hampered severely because of myths that non whites cannot learn as favorably as white students. Hence, this thought is promoted further as it relates to tests scores more favorable to the white students. There is evidence that federal budget as it pertains to NCLB may be misappropriated where money is spent implementing programs rather than actual research to find error in testing.

Conclusion

Finally, as it pertains to amendment the NCLB has left a disparaging mood among educators across the nation to adamantly lift up a cry out for those who stand to lose more from standardized testing. It is the case that the states have failed the students of which the need for educational equality is upheld. Hence, for blacks and other minorities who will take their place in the world, that is,  a world in need of equality where their fate should not be determined by a test. Hence, the premise of education and all its characteristics should say in policy all is equal, and not according to multiple choice, unless the multiples of choices are discerned from a creative mind with the ability to think its way through the problems presented with logic and sound reasoning. Policy makers should then, take the evidence presented here; along with, the research provided to make sound judgments and see that what is happening in the school system is questionable, and is not equal access as the law is written. Rewrite it then, make it plain to all that you mean what you say is the cry of all who speak of civil rights, on the streets and now in education. Notably, change will come—with an equal policy that truly stands with all accepted as equal.

Related Articles  

Why Poor Schools Can’t Win at Standardized Testing

Not Child Left Behind is not Closing a Racial Gap

Education Spending Up 64% Under No Child Left Behind But Test Scores Improve Little

The Black-White Test Score Gap. CHAPTER ONE  

The Administrative Burden of No Child Left Behind 

Is it a student’s civil right to take a federally mandated standardized test?

Report: Half of US Schools Fail Federal Standards

How No Child Left Behind Benefits African Americans 

OCBC Bank Case Study: An Analysis

ocbcc813eLong gone are the days when people had to fight for suitable treatment in the work place. At least for some employees who wake up to go to the old nine to five suitable treatment is a reality where employers and managers not only care about the state of the company, but the state of welling being of the people who serve to make their company successful. OCBC Bank of Singapore, has been that suitable company for nearly eighty years through strategic contribution, in which OCBC Human Resources Management [HRM] as Morgan & Stark (2014) wrote concerning strategic contribution an organization must “Be able to be key contributors in their organizational success.(Morgan & Stark, 2014). In this article there is analysis of the OCBC contribution and company success through collaborative efforts of education and mentoring throughout the term of employment and beyond.
It is ironic that Pandy (2012) mentions “Human Capital ‘concerning their job pool, because in America there is rumor that some jobs are nothing more than labor farms, never investing anything into the help they hire. In fact, concerning this human capital and investment the OCBC Bank does invest and relay the message which says that their “Investment helps to build the capabilities of employees to deliver superior performance.” (Pandy, 2014).
In reference to talent management, according to the article OCBC’s investment includes:
(a) Learning—which includes ongoing business strategy, and
(b) (b) Aligning employee learning objectives with those of the business to suit their goals to help employees build a career not just a job. (Pandy, 2012).
For example, the Career Best Program is a three year program for new hires (2007), and the OCBC Learning Academy, also known as the Learning Space @OCBC.
To further boost their employees, the OCBC Bank has excellent talent management, even, for their former employees where management attempts to with job placement efforts. For those employees with extraordinary talent there is a first deb to job openings within the company which according to Pandy (2012) “Pushes high potential talent out of their comfort zones”. There is also rotating schedule to give employee an opportunity to learn everything there is to know about the work, and to, develop new skills. This rotation in turn helps productivity (Pandy, 2012). In addition, there is also travel opportunity accompanied by senior management. Hence for all the aforementioned investments in their employee pool OCBC allows for sustainability as The OCBC Group (2015) wrote:

We have a structured three-year development program that charts the learning roadmaps for every employee during their first 3 years of service. Employees have opportunities to hone their skills through on-the-job training, in-house training programs, courses and other management development program. Our employees are encouraged to take charge of their own careers through our Career Best Program. This program allows them to evaluate their strengths and career orientation, and find the best fit between their talents and OCBC’s organizational needs. Through our Internal Job-Posting program, we provide employees the choice to pursue job opportunities across the OCBC Group, locally and overseas. This career mobility opportunity is key to attracting and retaining talents in the organization. Overseas postings are offered to employees who have the right skill sets and aspire to gain work experience in the different markets that we operate in. (The OCBC Group, 2015, para. 1).

The following are added benefits and topics of interest of being a talent at the OCBC Bank, according to The OCBC Group (2015):
1. Work-life Integration
2. Online health and security dashboard
3. Labor regulations
4. Relationships with unions
Comparatively, Wells Fargo gave tips to keep ones employees motivated as well: (a) Learn how employee training and open communication can improve employee retention, (b) Welcome the new hires to motivate on the first day, (c) Offer new challenges, including new roles, (d) Invest in training which might include seminars, workshops and mentoring by senior staff, (e) Keep the lines of communication open, and (f) Fulfill management needs. Wells Fargo gave review of a study which notes:

One study showed that employees receiving predominantly negative feedback from their managers were over 20 times more likely to be engaged than those receiving little or no feedback, proving that any form of feedback from an employer is better than none at all [Keep the Lines of Communication Open Section].

Though similar in context for this article Wells Fargo does not expound on programs aimed to educate their employees for better productivity past the first day of welcome.
In another article, Yasimine Yahya (2013) wrote of OCBC Bank:

This is becoming ever more important as increasing numbers of OCBC’s clients are doing business outside Singapore. “If we want to serve them well, we need to be able to communicate with them on the same wavelength as they know about the markets,” he said. Other employee schemes include the Future Leaders Program, which identifies high-potential staff and grooms them for top management roles. (Yahya, 2013).

In conclusion, the OCBC Bank of Singapore takes interest in their employees by first educating their employees to welcome them in the first three years of their work life with the company much like a mom would nurture her babe while learning to walk, while, Wells Fargo welcomes their employees on the first day which makes that special, but what about the next day or even years activities? Conversely, seminars, workshops and programs are great, however. OCBC Bank’s dedication to an entire floor further cements engagement tactics for present tense situations. All and all, the OCBC Bank’s care of its employees allow longevity of employment to add employee morale, plus, productivity in the workplace.