A Logical Approach to Healthcare Reform and Models

The Kellogg Foundation (2002) presents a guide that aims to thoroughly assist in the building up of an organization’s need to improve and or expand on to help the consumer. Hence the model presented by Kellogg  includes: (a) Input (b) Activities, (c) Output, (d) Outcomes, and (e) Impact.


Inputs include the consumer (s) who in this instance are patients (for example) who utilize the services provided by the organization. Since patients generally use a facility and or referred to a facility for this discussion let us say that the facility to look at is Kindred Healthcare.  Kindred Healthcare is the nation’s largest health provider, including, nursing, rehabilitation, assisted living, transitional care, home care, and hospice.

Additionally, included in inputs are providers (physicians and nurses), along with payers’ which is inclusive of insurance carriers and state funding, the staff (administrative) and any other technical assistance from external sources. Hence, with the exception of the consumer all other inputs have a hand in meeting the needs of the patient through their system.


The activities for providers is that these have an active participation in the reform process. First, one would need to understand that to reform something there was a problem. For example, the Affordable Reform Act ensures that all people in the US can receive adequate and professional healthcare, and along with that the staff includes community decision making (Kellogg, 2004).


Outputs for providers include more effective distribution of community care resources. For example, Kindred claims to help their patients recover fully in the best setting suitable for their specific care needs so supposedly they have state of the art facilities and equipment to meet the needs of their consumers, or rather patients. Conversely, the administrative process includes data, policy and advocacy, such as the Kindred Code of Conduct which stress that the company acts with integrity.


For outcomes and providers, that is Kindred Health Care should present a comprehensive healthcare delivery system, and the staff the outcomes are community assessment.


If the providers do all they say this should lead to improved health status for their patients, and for staff an increased healthcare system efficiency.

However, Rowan (2000) explained, “A variety of logic models can be used to describe the plans for implementation and expected outcomes of reform (Rowan, 2000). Consequently, concerning the Kellogg Model the outcome and implementation for that would work well if healthcare companies, their providers, their staff, and any external help they require have strict ethical policies in place. Hence, my analysis here is that though this logic model is sound; and, for the most part, healthcare companies might adhere to it—Kindred hospital has not and has breached all aspects of this model.

According to Kellogg (2004), “Outcome approach logic models display the interrelationships between specific program activities and their outcomes”.

I thought that I would mention Kindred Hospital here because from what I see of this model there is no adherence to it, that is,  if the model is used as a standard for healthcare companies (See: United States Army Disabled Veteran, Sergeant Kericia E. Smith Faces Third Heartbreaking Trauma of Her Life).

W.K. Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide

Technology in the Classroom|Part III-Integrating Multimedia

To Read: Part I, Part II

Integrating Multimedia

Integrating Multimedia slide show

Integrating Multimedia slide show

Concerning videos and other materials brought into the classroom an instructor has need to watch or read them first to make sure the content of the work is age appropriate for their learners. Since our class is tenth grade all materials and sites are relevant to the context of the prompts and are made age appropriate by making mandatory sites available through research beforehand and adding those sites to the prompt also give a wealth of information to the student. Consequently, as a teacher without the foresight that YouTube can also be filled with racism and hateful remarks young researchers and learners can become discouraged.

Therefore, keyword searches may be discouraged in the classroom for these prompts which is a disadvantage. Hence, questions are to be considered when video is integrated into lesson planning. According to the Sociological Cinema (2012), teacher should determine relevance, and ask does the material advance learning? Does the material illustrate or amplify? There is also need to evaluate it, according to author, that is, does it meet student, university, or community standards? Is it offensive? Is it disparaging? Is the material disturbing? (Sociological Cinema, 2012).

Other important needs to address when incorporating video in the lesson are venue, video time, and how to test on the subject of watched outside of the classroom.
Other challenges of integrating technology in the learning environment
It may seem less of a challenge to design and or implement a technology based lesson if one is a per subject teacher [i.e, history teacher], but what about the homeschool parent as teacher, or homeschool teachers who instruct on every topic? Will parents have a greater chance of integrating technology into their lessons if they use it? Yes, they will but parents need to learn the what, when, how and why of technology and then move on to the integration more so than the teachers in a public school classroom. Hence, there remains a challenge of teaching out of ignorance. It is the case, that there are still homes that are not technology literate other than using the phone to talk.

The goal then is to use technology at home as a teaching, and learning tool and if one teaches elsewhere then they too are more likely to integrate that literacy of technology. In an Edutopia (2009) article, Technology Integration begins at home the author wrote:

At home — that’s my answer. You see, I think many educators are more apt to carry technology use over from their personal lives into their professional ones than to take it on as a new part of their job. A teacher who uses a digital camera to share images of a home remodel as email attachments with her grown children has begun to understand the power of digital communication in a personal way. A teacher who uses online resources to plan a trip has begun to understand the power of the Web in answering any question one is curious enough about to ask. Once they experience the power and ease of current digital photography or Web-based research in their personal lives, the stage is set for helping them bring technology into their classroom teaching (Edutopia, 2009, para.4)

The integration or use of the internet in the classroom promotes literacy of research, use of browsers and URL’s while invoking critical and logical thinking among all personalities of learners. The use of mind mapping tools allows students to access subjects and or concepts through step by step capabilities, and allow additional material and thought to be added born from that. The use of PowerPoint or presentations through technology in the classroom promote fun, engagement, and graphics to what could originally be a bland topic; and allow, freedom of expression which can help educators to see what the student knows. The use of internet video as a technology in the classroom can be used to introduce subject content, and thus, eliminate boring or uninteresting lectures.
Related Articles & Suggested Readings
United Nations Educations, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
Technology Integration Begins at Home
Harnack, A & Kleppinger, E., (1997). Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources. St. Martin’s Press, Inc. New York, NY. ISBN: 0-312-15023
Lever-Duffy, J. & McDonald, J. B. (2015). Teaching and learning with technology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education
What is Mind Mapping? (and How to Get Started Immediately)
Multiple Intelligences
The Arab Muslim Slave Trade of Africans 
The African Slave Trade and the Middle Passage 
Organization of the Slave Trade
The Transatlantic Slave Trade Database
PowerPoint in the Classroom 
 Best Practices for Using Video in the Classroom 
Effective Use of PowerPoint 
 Islam: Empire of Faith [Documentary] 
 Creating Mind Maps from Google Docs

Integrating Technology in the Classroom|Part I-Prompts

Part 1: Prompts

See: Part II, Part III

European Society

For this assignment you will delve deep to develop understanding of the Europeans from the Modern Era to their claims in the western world which have led to global dissension. Discuss the powerful movements that transformed European society during the early modern era by generating a Mind Map. In the tool you may incorporate graphs and charts, videos, and/or use database research to develop your ideas and support your findings. Briefly describe the origins of each movement. For information to create a Mind Map Click here. To use the mind map tool you may create an account at Googledocs.com. Since there is so much work to gather you may choose a partner for the activity or choose to do the assignment alone.
In your map summarize each of the following by reviewing the timeline at: Essential Humanities.

European Movement throughout Modern Era

European Movement throughout Modern Era

1. Napoleonic War (1799-1815)
2. Pax Britannica (1815-1914)
3. World War I (1914-1918)

4. Interwar (1918-1939)
5. World War II (1939-1945)
6. Cold War (1945-1991)
7. Contemporary Era (1991-Present)

Slave Trade

After watching: The Transatlantic Slave Trade: What did Lead to an African Anticipation? Trace the development of the slave trade. For the initial research you may draw from the internet to gather your sources and to answer the following questions:

1. Under what circumstances did the slave trade begin?
2. How did the Islamic Slave Trade change the existing system?
3. How did it change the again during the Transatlantic Slave Trade?

4. What impact did the slave trade have on Africa and the Western World?

The Arab Muslim Slave Trade of Africans

The Arab Muslim Slave Trade of Africans

Mandatory internet sites to gather information:
The African Slave Trade and Middle Passage
Organization of the Slave Trade, Africa
Transatlantic Slave Trade
The Transatlantic Slave Trade Voyages Database
The Arab Muslim Slave Trade of the Africans—The Untold Story [See Related Articles Part: III].

The Emergence of Islam

America claims that the Nation of Islam, or rather the religion as a whole has much to do with global terrorism. After watching the video Islam: Empire of Faith [Documentary], in a narrated PowerPoint Presentation:

• Discuss the emergence of Islam. Who was the founder and what are the key beliefs of Islam?
• Compare it to other religions that existed at the time of its development.
• What elements are similar?
• What elements are unique to Islam?
• Trace the spread of the religion.
• How did it absorb other cultures?
• In turn, how did it influence others?
Also, in the PowerPoint presentation be sure to include visuals, graphics, charts, and other relevant content.