Concerning videos and other materials brought into the classroom an instructor has need to watch or read them first to make sure the content of the work is age appropriate for their learners. Since our class is tenth grade all materials and sites are relevant to the context of the prompts and are made age appropriate by making mandatory sites available through research beforehand and adding those sites to the prompt also give a wealth of information to the student. Consequently, as a teacher without the foresight that YouTube can also be filled with racism and hateful remarks young researchers and learners can become discouraged.
Therefore, keyword searches may be discouraged in the classroom for these prompts which is a disadvantage. Hence, questions are to be considered when video is integrated into lesson planning. According to the Sociological Cinema (2012), teacher should determine relevance, and ask does the material advance learning? Does the material illustrate or amplify? There is also need to evaluate it, according to author, that is, does it meet student, university, or community standards? Is it offensive? Is it disparaging? Is the material disturbing? (Sociological Cinema, 2012).
Other important needs to address when incorporating video in the lesson are venue, video time, and how to test on the subject of watched outside of the classroom.
Other challenges of integrating technology in the learning environment
It may seem less of a challenge to design and or implement a technology based lesson if one is a per subject teacher [i.e, history teacher], but what about the homeschool parent as teacher, or homeschool teachers who instruct on every topic? Will parents have a greater chance of integrating technology into their lessons if they use it? Yes, they will but parents need to learn the what, when, how and why of technology and then move on to the integration more so than the teachers in a public school classroom. Hence, there remains a challenge of teaching out of ignorance. It is the case, that there are still homes that are not technology literate other than using the phone to talk.
The goal then is to use technology at home as a teaching, and learning tool and if one teaches elsewhere then they too are more likely to integrate that literacy of technology. In an Edutopia (2009) article, Technology Integration begins at home the author wrote:
At home — that’s my answer. You see, I think many educators are more apt to carry technology use over from their personal lives into their professional ones than to take it on as a new part of their job. A teacher who uses a digital camera to share images of a home remodel as email attachments with her grown children has begun to understand the power of digital communication in a personal way. A teacher who uses online resources to plan a trip has begun to understand the power of the Web in answering any question one is curious enough about to ask. Once they experience the power and ease of current digital photography or Web-based research in their personal lives, the stage is set for helping them bring technology into their classroom teaching (Edutopia, 2009, para.4)
The integration or use of the internet in the classroom promotes literacy of research, use of browsers and URL’s while invoking critical and logical thinking among all personalities of learners. The use of mind mapping tools allows students to access subjects and or concepts through step by step capabilities, and allow additional material and thought to be added born from that. The use of PowerPoint or presentations through technology in the classroom promote fun, engagement, and graphics to what could originally be a bland topic; and allow, freedom of expression which can help educators to see what the student knows. The use of internet video as a technology in the classroom can be used to introduce subject content, and thus, eliminate boring or uninteresting lectures.
Related Articles & Suggested Readings
United Nations Educations, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Technology Integration Begins at Home
Harnack, A & Kleppinger, E., (1997). Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources. St. Martin’s Press, Inc. New York, NY. ISBN: 0-312-15023
Lever-Duffy, J. & McDonald, J. B. (2015). Teaching and learning with technology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education
What is Mind Mapping? (and How to Get Started Immediately)
The Arab Muslim Slave Trade of Africans
The African Slave Trade and the Middle Passage
Organization of the Slave Trade
The Transatlantic Slave Trade Database
PowerPoint in the Classroom
Best Practices for Using Video in the Classroom
Effective Use of PowerPoint
Islam: Empire of Faith [Documentary]
Creating Mind Maps from Google Docs
To read Part I
Analyzing the integration of technology into the prompts —
The use of mind mapping, or brainstorming tools in the classroom is an integral component of teaching and learning with technology. In example, Howard Gardner stated that students, or rather, people in general learn differently. Hence, the classroom is where teachers are required to gear instruction to meet the need every student. For example, addition of the mind map, or creation can meet the needs of personality types such as: (a) Visual-Spatial, (b) Musical, (c) Interpersonal, (d) Intrapersonal (e) Linguistic, and (f) Logical-Mathematical.
Further, in example regarding the personalities a logical-mathematical thinker would find values tied with the timeline giving dates of events and noting those more effectively than a bodily-kinesthetic type personality on this project even going as far as to calculate other information that could be relevant to the assignment. Generally speaking, however, each type can be multi-fauceted where learners are prone to more than one way of thinking, or can adapt while visual learners may do well with maps on the project. There are also other benefits to the mind map tool, according to Litemind, (2015).
• Note taking
• Brainstorming (individually or in groups)
• Problem solving
• Studying and memorization
• Researching and consolidating information from multiple sources
• Presenting information
• Gaining insight on complex subjects
• Jogging your creativity (para.4).
Internet research and resources concerning teaching and learning with technology are a necessity probably over all educational literacy because of the World Wide Web and the wealth of information found there, and since the assignment is dealing with the slave trade then the multiple intelligences work well here for learners who need to learn truth about themselves.
Simply put, visual-spatial, musical, inter-intrapersonal, linguistic, and even logical thinkers can appreciate the information they will find on the internet versus what is generally being taught in the public schools. In example, the instructions tell the student to research databases such as slave voyages which could allow the African American student [never meeting their ancestors or knowing anything other than slavery] to know how their people were forced to travel during the Middle Passage, or what caused such a great tribulation.
In addition, the student(s) may gain insight into a culture never shared, or visited outside of the American way of life. Accordingly, a student can travel back in time to learn what the name of the ship was, and even the names of those people. In essence, an interpersonal experience, rather, than an intrapersonal one involving many groups.
On the other hand, since the assignment involves European, Muslim, Africans in content then all groups of people can share in the assignment, though, one experience may be more emotional over the others depending on the information; and is also dependent, on who is learning it. In essence, the expected outcome of the assignment is to incite curiosity in the student as well as developing skills in using the internet in research.
Hanack & Kleppinger (1997), explained:
The Internet links computers together around the world, and when you’re connected to the internet one can communicate with people, schools, organizations, governments, businesses—anyone who has a computer with and internet connection (p.13).
Further, the internet works well in classroom activities such as the slave trade research because students learn to work interdependently or independently. A challenge, however, to research on the internet is avoiding plagiarism. The exercise, or rather all the exercise require that the student present valid and ethical information from sources they gather. Hence, proper documentation and citing of sources is critical when presenting materials. The exercise, then is preparatory for college where critical work is needed in the area of honesty and integrity in writing. Adding URL’s is a key concept as well for this type assignment.
Watch: Multiple Intelligences
Other aspects of teaching and learning with internet research as the technology is:
1. Understanding the internet
2. Researching a specific topic
3. Searching with internet tools
4. Finding a document’s URL
5. Using MLA Style to cite and document sources, and or works sited (Hanack & Kleppinger, 1997, pg.65).
The selected technology for the Muslim religion is internet video, however, PowerPoint has been added to invade thinking, that is, to understand what the learner has taken from the video to present their thoughts combined with further research. YouTube, as a focal point, or rather as a tool to develop an outline holds the key to much sound information such as the thinking concerning public opinion. For example, the government broadcasts speeches, and other news broadcasts can be found there that may be good for the assignment. The prompt gives video as an outline for students to form other evaluative type thinking.
For example, in order to know ‘what elements are unique in Islam’ one would have need to seek further for what is not unique in other religions. In other words, to consider something unique one would have to look past the name Muhammad in Islam, or Christ in Christianity which are common names to their worshippers and ask what is uncommon? So the exercise requires more than one way of thinking. All of the multiple intelligences are at work here and can benefit from the exercise, especially logical and inductive skills, in that, students in their research learn to deduce validity of arguments. Therefore, the United States citizens who blame the Muslim religion for terrorism may come to the conclusion that it is not the Muslims but the Americans who are the terrorist based on their own research. For this exercise and PowerPoint the outcome is to present graphics, video, oratorical work that dispels myths to bring validity to the claim that Muslims are terrorist, or debunking it.
With regard to all the exercises, and while keeping in line with the thought that though these prompts are history –these lessons are learned in real time. Hence, instructors and teachers should be more prepared with not only technology, but with the mind that as a guide there can be no bias to show up in the lessons or the planning thereof. It is the case, that since public school is basic study the instructor should strive to bring truth to the lesson by bringing facts that have been omitted in history, or inciting the aspect of logical thinking into the lesson. This, however, requires one who can thinking logically themselves. Hence, one who teaches should always remain teachable.
Advantages of using PowerPoint Presentations in classroom are:
• Engaging multiple learning styles
• Increasing visual impact
• Improving audience focus
• Providing annotations and highlights
• Analyzing and synthesizing complexities
• Enriching curriculum with interdisciplinary
• Increasing spontaneity and interactivity, and
• Increasing wonder (University of Central Florida, 2016, para. 2).
Also noted by Teach-ology (2016) that PowerPoint as a technology tool in the classroom for students and teachers is that (a) PowerPoint is fun to watch and fun to make, (b) Used correctly, PowerPoint can accommodate all learners’ needs, (c) It has a spell-check function! Something our black boards and overheads lack, (d) It motivates students when used in moderation, (e) It motivates staff, (f) PowerPoint allows you to reflect on your lesson and correct any needed changes. Finally, you can create the perfect lesson, (g) Imagine to be able to print out what you did in class for students that were absent. Better yet, turn the accountability on to students and post your presentations on-line, and (h) PowerPoint is not hard to learn [What’s Good About PowerPoint Section].
For example, a budget of this type can be seen in the educational venue and the public schools where there is concern with standardized testing, and is a form of control in certain programs offered to districts by the federal government. In essence, this type performance standard can be useful in other programs but not school, because it puts some students at a disadvantage even more , and today, instead of actually teaching subjects students are subjugated to perform for tests, untaught testing for some and most fail.
Meredith Broussard (2014) wrote:
The companies that create the most important state and national exams also publish textbooks that contain many of the answers. Unfortunately, low-income school districts can’t afford to buy them. (Broussard, 2014).So if the answers for the text are in the books and a particular the district cannot afford the book then why are children taking a text on something they have no way of learning?
It is fair to say that public means federal government so that the propensity for the government knowingly withholding funds in areas where there is lack is unconstitutional. This may be a tad off topic, but how can performance based assessments be tied to funding? Does it make sense for a public education system to do that?
Notably, are these low performing schools even included in the budget planning on federal or state level?
Of course the government should utilize and maintain performance budgets for agencies they support. However, the question to ask is if the agency supported is keeping in line with their supposed mission concerning (a) their various boards, (b) their workers, in this instance, their faculty, and (c) their students.
ED’s mission is to promote student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access. Congress established the U.S. Department of Education (ED) on May 4, 1980, in the Department of Education Organization Act (Public Law 96-88 of October 1979). Under this law, ED’s mission is to:
- Strengthen the Federal commitment to assuring access to equal educational opportunity for every individual;
- Supplement and complement the efforts of states, the local school systems and other instrumentalities of the states, the private sector, public and private nonprofit educational research institutions, community-based organizations, parents, and students to improve the quality of education;
- Encourage the increased involvement of the public, parents, and students in Federal education programs;
- Promote improvements in the quality and usefulness of education through Federally supported research, evaluation, and sharing of information;
- Improve the coordination of Federal education programs;
- Improve the management of Federal education activities; and
- Increase the accountability of Federal education programs to the President, the Congress, and the public (U.S. Department of Education, 2015).
Performance budgeting does not evaluate wholly what is being taught in the subject matter but to testing. In other words, ask is the testing necessary to pass the class?For example, it is not difficult to see that if a bus is in need of repair then why would you continually allow people to board the bus? No, the bus would be taken off the street until the necessary repairs are made, or it would be replaced altogether. Or, why continue to allow people to board buses in disrepair on one part of the city while on another side of the city the best buses are offered and used? See then if the budget is allocated for public transit then the public is all inclusive not based on the performance of the buses but solely based on the needs of the people.
See then that the scenario for the performance budget and school fits as well and reflects bias because the students are the passengers and the system in need of repair.
According to the TIME (2012) article, the exact information is given:
Do standardized achievement tests unfairly advantage white and Asian students and disadvantage the rest? According to a group of educational organizations and civil rights groups the answer is yes. The recently filed a complaint with the U.S. Department of Education pointing out that black and Latino students in New York score below whites and Asians on standardized tests so consistently that although they are almost 70% of the overall student body, they are only 11% of students enrolled at elite public schools. As a result, the complaint argues that New York City is in violation of the 1964 Civil Rights Act because schools rely on a test that advantages one racial group over another. (TIME, 2012).
In this way, yes performance budgeting might be needed, however, not this way. Evaluate the teachers, but not because of their ability to teach a test that they do not have answers to and most certainly do not punish the students for not learning what they have not been taught.
Organizational culture or rather the environment of the organization is the heart or soul of the establishment. The organization, in essence can be seen as a living thing because culture determines thinking; whether individual or society. For instance, being part of a society where freedom of religion is a choice people from all over the world find America an ideal place to live, to work, raise their children, and also have hopes to worship their God without restraint. Notably, most businesses have those same ideals, except a few where laws established by the government help to curb those business who infringe upon the rights of their employees. Not only the right of religion, but one law in particular where employers and managers who discriminate in regards to race, ethnicity, women and sexual orientation, and where law provides release from those troubled through equal opportunity measures. In essence, this paper will provide content that focuses as a how-to guide to leadership while re-establishing a workplace where the culture is restrictive as far as religion, that is, to reorganize its culture so that their employees’ work is not hindered; this reorganization includes, promotion, and other challenges of these diverse groups.
The First Amendment to the United States reads, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” [First Amendment]. Hence, with regards to the amendment one can ascertain that most people carry their God with them into the work place, however, this has presented a problem and begs the question that asks what if ones God is not Christian? In accordance, with this occurrence the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission [EEOC] was established to handle cases of just cause due to employer inconsideration or violation of someone’s rights. Considering this, in an effort to restructure culture of this organization which supports these diverse employees mangers must consider their employees as people; instead of, employees, said Peter Drucker in his article, “They’re Not Employees, They’re People” (Drucker, 2002). In explanation, one can say that people run companies while managers do their duties behind the scene. For example, a restaurant worker, whether cook or waitress are deciding factors in whether a patron will come back. It is the case, this thought is not withstanding upper management who handles cash flow all the way to the bank, however, it is the cook who does the ‘meat’ of the work as well as the waitress who serves it to interact with customers in a friendly and professional way. In essence, one should know that without good food and good service people would be one time customers to any establishment, and this same thinking would carry over to a print shop, a cleaner, a hotel or a bank where customer satisfaction is a must. Moreover, if employees and those they serve make the business would it be just to deny them their needs? Certainly not, and as Drucker (2002) added, in essence, that employers today have lost their first love of people where many employees have not intimate relationships with bosses because of outsourcing and lends to [those who use this hiring process] employees being more of a commodity than people.
The attenuation of the relationship between people and the organizations they work for represents a grave danger to business. It’s one thing for a company to take advantage of long-term freelance talent or to out-source the more tedious aspects of its human resources management. It’s quite another to forget, in the process, that developing talent is business’s most important task—the sine qua non of competition in a knowledge economy. If by off-loading employee relations, organizations also lose their capacity to develop people, they will have made a devil’s bargain indeed (Drucker, 2002, para.2).
Hence, the first part of the plan to reconstruct culture would be to have all employees work in-house for at least one year so that employers can learn who they are, which includes religious preferences, because one of requirements of EEOC is that employees tell their employers of their religious preferences before filing a claim. It is the case, that people cannot accommodate what they know nothing about and is not a ground for discrimination if this requirement is not meet. Also noteworthy, is knowing who is a single parent, whether, male or female, because these people have a tendency to be off work and is a chance to review policy on Paid Time Off [PTO] to make changes for all, but, especially for these reasons. It is the case, that while people do tend to take off unnecessarily not everyone does and employers should be empathetic to those needs. The premise of PTO lends further assists, as well as; to those whose religious preferences might take them off of work because of services and Sabbaths other than Sunday, Christmas and the other various rituals of Christian worship.
This section of the article will include the House and Mitchell Path Goal Theory. Plunkett (2013) wrote that a path-goal theory is such that shows how leaders treat their subordinates, that is, that an employee is successful or hindered by the way their employers treat them [House and Mitchell Path Goal Theory Section; para. 1]. In these terms Plunkett (2013) further wrote The path–goal theory suggests that a leadership style is effective or ineffective on the basis of how successfully leaders influence and support their subordinates’ perceptions of certain factors” (Plunkett ,2013, p.458, para. 1).
The factors are:
1. Goals that need to be achieved
2. Rewards for successful performance
3. Behaviors that lead to successful performance (Plunkett, 2013, p. 458. para. 1).
In accordance with the freedom religion problem in the work place managers should be aware sense people tend to take their god everywhere they go and sense, at least eight hours of the day are spent in the workplace that they cannot expect religion to be left at the door. In essence, mangers should note that when an employee clocks in so does their religion. Therefore, performance can be hindered when certain needs are not met such as (a) accommodation such as scheduling or rescheduling, (b) lack of consideration in dress if needed, and (c) no address of PTO when needed to address worship days. For example, Jane needed informed her managers that she needed Saturday off in honor of the Sabbath Day referencing. In explanation any person with regard to employment would tend to be enthusiastic about going to work, a supportive environment and their managers if they are respected in all aspects of who they are.
Plunkett (2013) wrote:
According to the path–goal theory, leaders can influence subordinates’ motivation by (a) teaching employees the competencies they will need to perform successfully and gain rewards, (b) tailoring rewards to meet employees’ needs, and (c) acting to support subordinates’ efforts. Teaching (coaching, development, and training) builds confidence and competencies. Adapting rewards to the specific needs of individual employees makes them more appealing. Supportive behaviors assist subordinates as necessary, enabling them to achieve both personal and organizational goals (House and Mitchell Path-Goal Theory; para. 2).
It is the case, that managers are not baby sitter and need skillful and reliable employees, however, people cannot do their job properly if they feel they are no liked, or that they will be fired because of their preferences. According to Business Management Daily the authors, concerning leadership wrote, “Don’t just be a boss — be a leader. Maximize your leadership skills in the five most crucial areas: decision making, executive coaching, leadership training, strategic management and understanding your leadership style.” (Business Management, p. 2, para.1). Additionally, managers should make themselves available to answer questions, schedule meeting with subordinates when requested or as a group as a whole. It is the case, that employees need to see their management more than when work is slow, but also when work is going well. For example, if the only time employees see their bosses are when goals are low then this says something about the boss. In general, money usually is the motive and not a caring spirit behind to visit. Contrastingly, if one person is doing well on a project and are praised, should those who do not do so well be motivated as well. To finish the Business Management article concluded, “Situational leadership changes depending on the type of leadership (direction and support) each of your employee’s needs.” (Business Management, p. 2, para.2).
Lastly, issue ultimatums for a manager who cannot be supportive in regards to all employee needs, because of uncaring managers in business many companies have become respondents in lawsuits. It is better to open one’s mind to the diverseness of other people. In this article not everyone is Christian, but see too, that not everyone is Jewish, studies Buddism, and not everyone even believes. Hence, companies should be understanding of these, that is, that others might think differently. Comparatively, not all employees have the same skills, where one can some or better in one area and other another. Therefore each situation is different. Managers need people skills first for themselves and secondly for their employee that way everyone grows. In turn, House and Mitchell Path Goal Theory applied so that their employees work is not hindered; this promotion, schedule days off and other challenges of these diverse groups.
Leadership: Leadership Development Methods and Tips.
During the General Motors bailout crisis the public sentiment was one of enragement concerning government intervention. Notably, for some the outcry was [seemingly] there goes the government again sticking their nose in where it does not belong, however, for many with jobs at stake the intervention was one of relief from vast layoffs within the company. Hence, the government’s intervention, although not popular brought relief for many. Conversely, the outcry might be one of ignorance for some. It is the case, that the government has always been involved, not solely with General Motors, but with the transportation industry collectively as a shareholder, and this is the reason for their intervention to protect their investment. Baack (2012) concerning the nature of negotiations and bargaining stated two points of interest, that negotiations are a ‘give and take decision’; and negotiations can be a ‘win-win’ for both parties [The Nature of Negotiations and Bargaining Processes; para 2]. Therefore, the General Motors Company allowance, or rather, acceptance of intervention government diverted further injury to the public, the transportation industry as a collective industry; as well as, the government who were shareholders[and who] negotiated with General Motors, rather than a so called barge-in type scene as the public regarded.
Baack (2012) wrote there are three areas to consider in a negotiation; and asks the question concerning preconditions, “Does negotiation present the best option?” The thoughts to consider in this instance are: (a) the psychological climate, (b) the availability of resources, and (c) the characteristics of the bargaining issue. Hence, all these combined should lead to what Baack (2012) considers to be a win-win solution, or rather, an ‘Integrative Negotiation’ process.” [The Nature of Negotiations and Bargaining Processes; para 4].
Considering the availability of sources, becoming a stakeholder allows that the government experts have input into safety standards which for GM obviously were an issue, those along with financial problems. Notably, armed with resources needed, as like money, the US government’s help was well needed. Additionally, it is a give and take type scenario which took place which said, You [General Motors] allow me [US Government] to buy shares in your stock and I [US Government] will in turn bail you out of trouble to avoid a bankruptcy; a win-win. In the article, “5 Keys of Dealing with Workplace Conflict,” Mike Myatt (2012), a contributor to the Forbes blog wrote, “Don’t fear conflict; embrace it – it’s your job.” While you can try and avoid conflict (bad idea), you cannot escape conflict. The fact of the matter is conflict in the workplace is unavoidable. It will find you whether you look for it (good idea – more later) or not. The ability to recognize conflict, understand the nature of conflict, and to be able to bring swift and just resolution to conflict will serve you well as a leader – the inability to do so may well be your downfall. (Myatt, 2012. para.1). General Motors faced bankruptcy as a solution to its problems. Notably, filing bankruptcy can denote one of two things, (a) relief for businesses and individuals who have no other recourse from creditors, and (b) a means of escape from creditors for those who have acted irresponsible. Hence, for General Motors a bankruptcy would not be a good idea because of shareholders, employees, or the public citizens in regards to purchase of cars out on the street.
In the article, “Government fines GM maximum $35 million for delayed safety recall’, author wrote:
GM will pay a $35 million penalty — the maximum allowed, and the largest ever imposed on an automaker — and will be required to make wide-ranging changes to its safety practices that will be supervised by the government, another first for an automaker. “What GM did was break the law,” Anthony Foxx, the secretary of transportation, said at a news conference. (Wire Reports, para. 2).
Notably, in the instance in the industry of transportation the government as a saving factor is seen all around, because not only was GM in trouble financially, but the public as well. This analysis is great because clandestine activity is brought into the light and presumably had it not been for the government’s intervention some activities might never have been seen. In addition to fines, there is also note in the article about employee training going forth which is great for public safety.
Baack (2012) spoke about preconditions to negotiations. In this we note that the government’s pronouncement about the trade of stock and their help allowed for further examination of the companies policies, safety procedures and other issues of concern. Hence, Baack gave a list of preconditions that had to happen; otherwise, no solution will come. He calls the list psychological climate which includes:
- Willingness to participate in negotiations
- Readiness to negotiate
- Agreement on some issues
- Willingness to settle
- Sense of urgency [The Psychological Climate Section; para. 1]
Baack (2012) wrote, “A stakeholder is a person or group with a vested interest in the outcome of a negotiation. These individuals should tangibly demonstrate their readiness to be seated at the bargaining table. If a stakeholder group is absent or unwilling to commit to good-faith bargaining, the potential to find a viable solution is reduced.” [The Psychological Climate Section; para. 2]. One can surmise, then, that the government’s strategy to become a stakeholder gave them considerable influence in the goings on of the business. Hence, people must realize that government as a shareholder served two purposes: (a) to allow them a stake and profits, and (2) allowed them further insight in company structure. Hence, as shareholder, the government is not only entitled to financial records, but unlawful practices as well which is very good indeed; because, even after selling the stock off the stigma of unsafe practices and unlawful activity allows the government the ability to make decisions for GM’s inability to keep cars safe. Hence, the resolution is continual monitoring by the government.
It is the case, that all activity, compromise, resolution and so forth would not be possible had it been for the governments’ resources, the money, the experts and General Motors willingness to negotiate with them. Moreover, Baack (2012) wrote about the ‘Availability of resources,’ giving the means of influence in negotiation:
- Reward based
- Charisma [Means of Influence in Negotiation Section; Table 7.2].
For this purpose, legitimate, coercion, and expertise will discussed, because of the gravity of the negotiations. Therefore, a concern in the negotiation efforts on GM’s part would be ownership and patent protection in regards to implied take over; along with their need for other expert opinion and know how, other than their own, which the government provided with analysis of the situation as a whole, that is, in the area of safety, finances and public concern were all laid out in the open. To understand coercion, one might look to the fact that had not car makers decided to take the government up on the offer there might have been a halt to the transportation industry. However, as it stands the loss revenue, damaged relations with customers all stand, because of faulty products. Additionally, had the offer not been accepted by General Motors then the government might have used coercion as a persuasive technique to investigate the company without incentive.
In conclusion, the steps of conflict resolution as Baack (2012) wrote are thus: (a) Identify the parties involved, (b) Identify the issues, (c) Identify the positions of the parties, (d) Find the bargaining zone, and (e) Make a decision.[ The Steps of Conflict Resolution Section; para. 1]. Hence, the negotiations between the General Motors Company and the US Government are met by acceptance of the government proposal to help, and in turn allowing the government to become stakeholders; which in turn, allowed the government to bring in expertise in financial discovery, as well as, expertise in matter of safety. For General Motors, the need for continued monitoring is needed in compliance to the law and for safety of its customers. However, the matter of a government barge in is far from truth as is the impression for some Americans. It is therefore the case, that a least in this instance the government did the right thing after all.
Baack, D. (2012) Organizational Behavior. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUBUS610.12.1/sections/sec6.1
Abraham Maslow (1954) wrote a basic satisfaction-progression model which adapts to the philosophy of Humanism. Conversely, the humanism approach would show that all people are basically good people, even with the absence of religious thinking; that is, all people [without thought to religion] have the ability to pursue and maintain basic needs. The hierarchy of needs Maslow (1954) developed, and to paraphrase Baack (2012), stated that for all human-beings to be satisfied the physiological needs of “food, shelter, clothing, and sex” must be met. [Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Section, para. 1]. These in turn, can lead one to pursue needs outside of themselves such as social circles where one meets friends, acquaintance and work relations. Hence, these social needs if they are successful, in turn, lead to esteem, where people, generally are found to be well-liked and held in high regard, and these are where people know that the work they do has meaning; not only for their feelings of esteem, but in helping other which Baack (2012) stated, “esteem leads to self-actualization”, that is what one does in their life’s work makes a difference. [Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Section; para. 2].
The thought of manipulation in the workplace is absolutely appalling. It is the case, that an employer who would play on a person’s need to get them to do anything for their paycheck is unthinkable, however some do just that. For example, an employer, whose vision in the beginning was to help people who had difficulty finding employment, and was successful in starting a ‘reputable’ company helping many. However, the original owner, now deceased, the company was wrested by evil men who now use control over the employees by way of trinkets under the guise of ‘a job well done’. It is the case, that incentives should come in the form of additions to pay allowing the employee to buy what he wishes and if its trinkets or material goods he [the employee] wants he is not manipulated to have them. Additionally, Baack (2012) stated, “The need for power suggests the drive to make others behave in ways they would not otherwise choose. When properly channeled, the need for power can be related to managerial success. To do so, power cannot be created or used in the pursuit of personal goals, and the individual should not place influence ahead of effective performance. [McClelland’s Need Theory; para. 4]. Therefore, the acknowledgment of issues which cause lack of motivation in the workplace with managers who are seen as people of influence, and manipulate by trinkets to persuade their employees to do their bidding unawares; and, no matter how unethical. Hence, anyone who chooses not to participate is not well-liked by management which Baack (2012) wrote, according to Maslow (1954) can impede progress for an employee.
Assuming that all the physiological needs are met through ones’ paycheck the move to social, esteem, and self-actualization are forthcoming. However, one has to trust their boss, or people in supervision over them to such a degree as to allow credit to them [the employer]; even while, waiting to receive a check. In the article, “The Top 9 Things That Ultimately Motivate Employees to Achieve”, Glenn Llopis (2012), wrote there are few key things that motivate a person, they are: (a) Trustworthy Leadership, (b) Being Relevant, (c) Proving other wrong, (d) Career Advancement, (e) No Regrets, (f) Stable Future. These are just a few, however, Llopis (2012) concerning trustworthiness stated:
Leaders that have your back and that are looking out for your best interests – will win the trust of their employees who in turn will be more motivated to achieve. I once had a department manager that always looked out for me. He was upfront in communicating his performance expectations and his feedback was direct. He never treated me like a subordinate and looked for ways to include me in senior management meetings. This opened my eyes to what lied ahead in my career and thus motivated me to reach the next level and in the process exceed the expectations of my boss. [Trustworthy Leadership Section; para. 1].
The scenario where the employer manipulates through the employees’ physiological needs not being met is one of concern, especially when taken from the idea of humanism and the thought that all humans are basically good. Hence, in this case, all people can be considered good until they are proven un-worthy, and this revelation can lead to lack of motivation, or a less than positive image of the employer. Hence, though Maslow’s theory is a good one it does not bring into focus, or rather, allow for greedy employers, or greedy people. Llopis (2012) wrote, “As a leader, be mindful of providing security and stability in how you lead your employees – and watch their motivational levels rise.” [Stable Future Section].
In the article, “The Holy Grail of Workplace Motivation” Skip Weisman (2014) wrote concerning transparency:
For small business owners transparency may be more frightening than autonomy. Transparency is difficult for small business owners because it is opening them up to scrutiny they don’t feel their employees are entitled to….. Transparency breeds significantly higher levels of motivation and commitment because it speaks directly to the level of trust in the workplace. Research has shown that higher levels of trust can be directly related to higher levels of financial performance. Offering transparency shows an employee a direct correlation between their role and the company’s bottom line performance. It allows employees to understand the correlation between their compensation and the results the company achieves. [Autonomy and Transparency Section; para. 1,10].
In this instance, the employer who is not transparent would find it difficult to reward an honest employee, and one can see why not in the sense that wrong doing is shown up by the honest employee who for all purpose is aware of the manipulation. Hence, rewards or incentives which may be well received by needy employees might not be so with on who is honest. In essence, bribes under the pretense of ‘good of a job’ well done are at the expense of the employee and the customers they serve. Hence, to motivate themselves employees, according to Llopis (2012), in the article, “6 Unique Ways to Sustain a High Performance Mentality” to paraphrase stated that the employee should keep a blog to write about lessons and experience which to add, is ideal for those employees who can find no other recourse, except to know what to look for in their other endeavors when searching for employment. [Step6: Write a Blog and Hold Yourself Accountable Section].
Ultimately, according to Maslow having basic or physiological needs met is essential for security in the individual personal life. Hence, the challenge is that these must be met by management which brings further safety to the individual at home, and in the work place. However, the rationale of security is further cemented with (a) trustworthy employers and (b) transparent employers where one’s esteem is made wholesome with shared thinking and goals among superiors and peers. Therefore, if one feels safe then, and esteem is reciprocal this makes one’s work worthwhile. Hence, employers and their management should take measures that all their staff feel their jobs are a safe environment to work to ensure a wholesome environment for everyone.