Technology in the Classroom|Part III-Integrating Multimedia

To Read: Part I, Part II

Integrating Multimedia

Integrating Multimedia slide show

Integrating Multimedia slide show

Concerning videos and other materials brought into the classroom an instructor has need to watch or read them first to make sure the content of the work is age appropriate for their learners. Since our class is tenth grade all materials and sites are relevant to the context of the prompts and are made age appropriate by making mandatory sites available through research beforehand and adding those sites to the prompt also give a wealth of information to the student. Consequently, as a teacher without the foresight that YouTube can also be filled with racism and hateful remarks young researchers and learners can become discouraged.

Therefore, keyword searches may be discouraged in the classroom for these prompts which is a disadvantage. Hence, questions are to be considered when video is integrated into lesson planning. According to the Sociological Cinema (2012), teacher should determine relevance, and ask does the material advance learning? Does the material illustrate or amplify? There is also need to evaluate it, according to author, that is, does it meet student, university, or community standards? Is it offensive? Is it disparaging? Is the material disturbing? (Sociological Cinema, 2012).

Other important needs to address when incorporating video in the lesson are venue, video time, and how to test on the subject of watched outside of the classroom.
Other challenges of integrating technology in the learning environment
It may seem less of a challenge to design and or implement a technology based lesson if one is a per subject teacher [i.e, history teacher], but what about the homeschool parent as teacher, or homeschool teachers who instruct on every topic? Will parents have a greater chance of integrating technology into their lessons if they use it? Yes, they will but parents need to learn the what, when, how and why of technology and then move on to the integration more so than the teachers in a public school classroom. Hence, there remains a challenge of teaching out of ignorance. It is the case, that there are still homes that are not technology literate other than using the phone to talk.

The goal then is to use technology at home as a teaching, and learning tool and if one teaches elsewhere then they too are more likely to integrate that literacy of technology. In an Edutopia (2009) article, Technology Integration begins at home the author wrote:

At home — that’s my answer. You see, I think many educators are more apt to carry technology use over from their personal lives into their professional ones than to take it on as a new part of their job. A teacher who uses a digital camera to share images of a home remodel as email attachments with her grown children has begun to understand the power of digital communication in a personal way. A teacher who uses online resources to plan a trip has begun to understand the power of the Web in answering any question one is curious enough about to ask. Once they experience the power and ease of current digital photography or Web-based research in their personal lives, the stage is set for helping them bring technology into their classroom teaching (Edutopia, 2009, para.4)

Conclusion
The integration or use of the internet in the classroom promotes literacy of research, use of browsers and URL’s while invoking critical and logical thinking among all personalities of learners. The use of mind mapping tools allows students to access subjects and or concepts through step by step capabilities, and allow additional material and thought to be added born from that. The use of PowerPoint or presentations through technology in the classroom promote fun, engagement, and graphics to what could originally be a bland topic; and allow, freedom of expression which can help educators to see what the student knows. The use of internet video as a technology in the classroom can be used to introduce subject content, and thus, eliminate boring or uninteresting lectures.
Related Articles & Suggested Readings
United Nations Educations, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
Technology Integration Begins at Home
Harnack, A & Kleppinger, E., (1997). Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources. St. Martin’s Press, Inc. New York, NY. ISBN: 0-312-15023
Lever-Duffy, J. & McDonald, J. B. (2015). Teaching and learning with technology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education
What is Mind Mapping? (and How to Get Started Immediately)
Multiple Intelligences
The Arab Muslim Slave Trade of Africans 
The African Slave Trade and the Middle Passage 
Organization of the Slave Trade
The Transatlantic Slave Trade Database
PowerPoint in the Classroom 
 Best Practices for Using Video in the Classroom 
Effective Use of PowerPoint 
 Islam: Empire of Faith [Documentary] 
 Creating Mind Maps from Google Docs

Integrating Technology in the Classroom|Part II-Analyzing the Integration

To read Part I

Analyzing the integration of technology into the prompts —
The use of mind mapping, or brainstorming tools in the classroom is an integral component of teaching and learning with technology. In example, Howard Gardner stated that students, or rather, people in general learn differently. Hence, the classroom is where teachers are required to gear instruction to meet the need every student. For example, addition of the mind map, or creation can meet the needs of personality types such as: (a) Visual-Spatial, (b) Musical, (c) Interpersonal, (d) Intrapersonal (e) Linguistic, and (f) Logical-Mathematical.

Further, in example regarding the personalities a logical-mathematical thinker would find values tied with the timeline giving dates of events and noting those more effectively than a bodily-kinesthetic type personality on this project even going as far as to calculate other information that could be relevant to the assignment. Generally speaking, however, each type can be multi-fauceted where learners are prone to more than one way of thinking, or can adapt while visual learners may do well with maps on the project. There are also other benefits to the mind map tool, according to Litemind, (2015).

Gardener's Multiple Intelligence

Gardener’s Multiple Intelligence

They are:
• Note taking
• Brainstorming (individually or in groups)
• Problem solving
• Studying and memorization
• Planning
• Researching and consolidating information from multiple sources
• Presenting information
• Gaining insight on complex subjects
• Jogging your creativity (para.4).
Internet research and resources concerning teaching and learning with technology are a necessity probably over all educational literacy because of the World Wide Web and the wealth of information found there, and since the assignment is dealing with the slave trade then the multiple intelligences work well here for learners who need to learn truth about themselves.

Simply put, visual-spatial, musical, inter-intrapersonal, linguistic, and even logical thinkers can appreciate the information they will find on the internet versus what is generally being taught in the public schools. In example, the instructions tell the student to research databases such as slave voyages which could allow the African American student [never meeting their ancestors or knowing anything other than slavery] to know how their people were forced to travel during the Middle Passage, or what caused such a great tribulation.

In addition, the student(s) may gain insight into a culture never shared, or visited outside of the American way of life. Accordingly, a student can travel back in time to learn what the name of the ship was, and even the names of those people. In essence, an interpersonal experience, rather, than an intrapersonal one involving many groups.

On the other hand, since the assignment involves European, Muslim, Africans in content then all groups of people can share in the assignment, though, one experience may be more emotional over the others depending on the information; and is also dependent, on who is learning it. In essence, the expected outcome of the assignment is to incite curiosity in the student as well as developing skills in using the internet in research.

Hanack & Kleppinger (1997), explained:

The Internet links computers together around the world, and when you’re connected to the internet one can communicate with people, schools, organizations, governments, businesses—anyone who has a computer with and internet connection (p.13).

Further, the internet works well in classroom activities such as the slave trade research because students learn to work interdependently or independently. A challenge, however, to research on the internet is avoiding plagiarism. The exercise, or rather all the exercise require that the student present valid and ethical information from sources they gather. Hence, proper documentation and citing of sources is critical when presenting materials. The exercise, then is preparatory for college where critical work is needed in the area of honesty and integrity in writing. Adding URL’s is a key concept as well for this type assignment.

Watch: Multiple Intelligences

Other aspects of teaching and learning with internet research as the technology is:
1. Understanding the internet
2. Researching a specific topic
3. Searching with internet tools
4. Finding a document’s URL
5. Using MLA Style to cite and document sources, and or works sited (Hanack & Kleppinger, 1997, pg.65).
The selected technology for the Muslim religion is internet video, however, PowerPoint has been added to invade thinking, that is, to understand what the learner has taken from the video to present their thoughts combined with further research. YouTube, as a focal point, or rather as a tool to develop an outline holds the key to much sound information such as the thinking concerning public opinion. For example, the government broadcasts speeches, and other news broadcasts can be found there that may be good for the assignment. The prompt gives video as an outline for students to form other evaluative type thinking.

For example, in order to know ‘what elements are unique in Islam’ one would have need to seek further for what is not unique in other religions. In other words, to consider something unique one would have to look past the name Muhammad in Islam, or Christ in Christianity which are common names to their worshippers and ask what is uncommon? So the exercise requires more than one way of thinking. All of the multiple intelligences are at work here and can benefit from the exercise, especially logical and inductive skills, in that, students in their research learn to deduce validity of arguments. Therefore, the United States citizens who blame the Muslim religion for terrorism may come to the conclusion that it is not the Muslims but the Americans who are the terrorist based on their own research. For this exercise and PowerPoint the outcome is to present graphics, video, oratorical work that dispels myths to bring validity to the claim that Muslims are terrorist, or debunking it.

Using PowerPoint in the Classroom

Using PowerPoint in the Classroom

With regard to all  the exercises, and while keeping in line with the thought that though these prompts are history –these lessons are learned in real time. Hence, instructors and teachers should be more prepared with not only technology, but with the mind that as a guide there can be no bias to show up in the lessons or the planning thereof. It is the case, that since public school is basic study the instructor should strive to bring truth to the lesson by bringing facts that have been omitted in history, or inciting the aspect of logical thinking into the lesson. This, however, requires one who can thinking logically themselves. Hence, one who teaches should always remain teachable.
Advantages of using PowerPoint Presentations in classroom are:
• Engaging multiple learning styles
• Increasing visual impact
• Improving audience focus
• Providing annotations and highlights
• Analyzing and synthesizing complexities
• Enriching curriculum with interdisciplinary
• Increasing spontaneity and interactivity, and
• Increasing wonder (University of Central Florida, 2016, para. 2).
Also noted by Teach-ology (2016) that PowerPoint as a technology tool in the classroom for students and teachers is that (a) PowerPoint is fun to watch and fun to make, (b) Used correctly, PowerPoint can accommodate all learners’ needs, (c) It has a spell-check function! Something our black boards and overheads lack, (d) It motivates students when used in moderation, (e) It motivates staff, (f) PowerPoint allows you to reflect on your lesson and correct any needed changes. Finally, you can create the perfect lesson, (g) Imagine to be able to print out what you did in class for students that were absent. Better yet, turn the accountability on to students and post your presentations on-line, and (h) PowerPoint is not hard to learn [What’s Good About PowerPoint Section].

Integrating Technology in the Classroom|Part I-Prompts

Part 1: Prompts

See: Part II, Part III

European Society

For this assignment you will delve deep to develop understanding of the Europeans from the Modern Era to their claims in the western world which have led to global dissension. Discuss the powerful movements that transformed European society during the early modern era by generating a Mind Map. In the tool you may incorporate graphs and charts, videos, and/or use database research to develop your ideas and support your findings. Briefly describe the origins of each movement. For information to create a Mind Map Click here. To use the mind map tool you may create an account at Googledocs.com. Since there is so much work to gather you may choose a partner for the activity or choose to do the assignment alone.
In your map summarize each of the following by reviewing the timeline at: Essential Humanities.

European Movement throughout Modern Era

European Movement throughout Modern Era

1. Napoleonic War (1799-1815)
2. Pax Britannica (1815-1914)
3. World War I (1914-1918)

4. Interwar (1918-1939)
5. World War II (1939-1945)
6. Cold War (1945-1991)
7. Contemporary Era (1991-Present)

Slave Trade

After watching: The Transatlantic Slave Trade: What did Lead to an African Anticipation? Trace the development of the slave trade. For the initial research you may draw from the internet to gather your sources and to answer the following questions:

1. Under what circumstances did the slave trade begin?
2. How did the Islamic Slave Trade change the existing system?
3. How did it change the again during the Transatlantic Slave Trade?

4. What impact did the slave trade have on Africa and the Western World?

The Arab Muslim Slave Trade of Africans

The Arab Muslim Slave Trade of Africans

Mandatory internet sites to gather information:
The African Slave Trade and Middle Passage
Organization of the Slave Trade, Africa
Transatlantic Slave Trade
The Transatlantic Slave Trade Voyages Database
The Arab Muslim Slave Trade of the Africans—The Untold Story [See Related Articles Part: III].

The Emergence of Islam

America claims that the Nation of Islam, or rather the religion as a whole has much to do with global terrorism. After watching the video Islam: Empire of Faith [Documentary], in a narrated PowerPoint Presentation:

• Discuss the emergence of Islam. Who was the founder and what are the key beliefs of Islam?
• Compare it to other religions that existed at the time of its development.
• What elements are similar?
• What elements are unique to Islam?
• Trace the spread of the religion.
• How did it absorb other cultures?
• In turn, how did it influence others?
Also, in the PowerPoint presentation be sure to include visuals, graphics, charts, and other relevant content.

Your Sunday Bread: The Fruit of Righteousness

FB_IMG_1451512326301We don’t like to think of ourselves as criminals. That’s because we look at the act instead of the thinking. So then the tendency to not see the spiritual in the transgression of the law and sin is missing, and is why people can transgress (break) Yahuah’s command without batting an eye. It is because we do not perceive, or cannot perceive that the law is a spiritual one.

First, Yahuah is Spirit, and those who give respect to, look at, turn to look at, cast their gaze on Him must follow the commands in spirit and in truth.

Secondly, it takes a spiritual mind to not do the things found in the law, that is, do not bring His name to naught, do not make graven images, do not bear false witness and do not covet and to remember the Shabbat to keep it set apart.

In other words, to not be found guilty of whats in that law then one must know and believe that (1) a spiritual hand wrote it, (2) transgression of the law is spiritual against Yahuah, then ones spiritual self and the other person [s] spirit they transgress the law against, (3) a spiritual mind perceives it, (4) a spiritual mind follows it, and (5) spiritual mind breaks or keeps it.

For example, a person is committing the act of adultery transgresses Yahuah’s command first in his mind (his spirit), because of this he transgresses further by his acts (his fruit), then he transgresses the command further by participation to transgress the law with another. Does that make sense. Then see that the transgression is so against Yahuah who is Spirit, your spirit and the other peoples spirit man. There is nothing that is not attached in a spirit whether of Yahuah or of the enemy.

Therefore, one is either walking in spirit and in truth (Law Keeper) or walking in spiritual wickedness (Law Breaker). We can tell which by their acts when it shows in their fruit.

Today: We should ask ourselves does my fruit show righteousness of truth?

For your hearing:

John 4

Your Sunday Bread: There’s a Stranger in the House!

374Ladies,

There’s a stranger in the house!

We cannot get anymore righteous than what the bible says which denotes that our thinking must change, and the way that it does is spiritually; otherwise, we would have been into this truth long ago. Yahuah is truth, his word never changes even when we thought we were living the right way.

This poses a question then–what to do with the people left behind? Suddenly since the light has shone on us then we can see clearly that the light is shining and does shine on every single person place and thing.

Light has come—this message is gonna tear you up, or fix you up and its gonna be a choice to stay or go.

“But know this, that in the last days hard times shall come. For men shall be lovers of [them] self, lovers of silver, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, thankless, wrongdoers, unloving, unforgiving, slanderers, without self control, fierce, haters of good, betrayers, reckless, puffed up, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of Elohim, having a form of reverence but denying its power. And from these turn away. For among them are those who creep in into the household and captivate silly women loaded down with sins [unconfessed], led away by various lusts always learning and never able to come to the knowledge of truth.” (2 Timothy 3:1-7).

First let me say that these women are not outside the church only they are in it. Yes, this passage is speaking of the so called spirtual woman, and I add Christian woman whose eyes have not been opened. We are a silly lot, before truth comes –always learning but never seeing truth of what we learn. I have been silly, and if my eyes had not opened I could not say this. Silly women, are the most gullible women and the bible toting men know it.

Just men in general understand silly women, but bible toting women see ourselves as spiritual, that is we dress the part, make up the part, preach the part and and have not the spirit of truth to distinguish ourselves.

Ok we fell for a charmer–god talking man who knows nothing of truth, but to look good, preach good, and beyond that just another man.

Tote that bible baby you look good to me when I am ASLEEP. WAKE UP LADIES!

We fall for the good job, hell some of us don’t expect much but a good lay down and all is well. I use to be that woman until —truth came and now I don’t care what a man has got if the most important is missing…where is Yahuah and where is truth?

If Yah is missing we get the above description lovers of self, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of Elohim. Love talk but love is not genuine.

I don’t know about you but that man is not worth it. You will not get this message until you wake up, or if you are woke take caution

Your Sunday Bread: Altar Prayer or Idol Prayer?

1376646_881719698507328_719261010624059108_nIf we deliberately continue sinning after we have received knowledge of the truth, there is no longer any sacrifice that will cover these sins. (Hebrews 10:26).

So here are indications that the place you worship is into idol worship.

2Co 3:14  But their minds were hardened, for to this day, when the old covenant is being read, that same veil remains, not lifted, because in Messiah it is taken away.

Many people today like to watch shows that solve crimes, and some of the more popular show like CSI, The Closer, The First 48 [reality] show us some things that can occur in the way of gathering evidence and investigation, interviewing witnesses and the like.

For example, let us say that a crime is committed. The crime is idol worship and that the accused are unaware that idol worship still is apart of life today. In fact, many people who were guilty woke up to this heinous crime and as community service has it, now spend time daily getting the word out that the crime committed, that is, idolatry if they do not repent is punishable by death.

However, the people are not agreeable, and in fact, say all they do is go to church. However, you have evidence to the contrary that not only do these people go to church, but they pray at the alter of the idol, sacrifice their money to the idol and worse yet teach their children to do the same. Not only that, there is a designated meeting held each week, and subsequent days for the people to practice their dance, to meet with other people who worship the idol too, and together they all help build up the sacrifice on the designated day; including and not limited to ritualistic holidays.

In essence, there is more than enough evidence to try them to find them guilty as charged…adultery, graven images, bearing false witness [coming as angels of light], murdering the poor in spirit (Matthew 5) or rather people oblivious to their plight. Book sales, DVDs, CDs, all in the name of the idol.

Today: Ask, why is there a need for an alter of prayer when the sacrifice was taken away. The veil is no longer there and people can go to the father without the need of a priest, representative?

For your hearing:

Revelations 21:7-8, ““The one who overcomes shall inherit all this, and I shall be his Elohim and he shall be My son. “But as for the cowardly, and untrustworthy, and abominable, and murderers, and those who whore, and drug sorcerers, and idolaters, and all the false, their part is in the lake which burns with fire and sulphur, which is the second death.”

Continue reading

Government Growth: The Poor & Needy v. Rich & Greedy

The Food Stamp Program, as an area for growth [for me] would be essential. However, there seems to be a problem with feeding the nation’s poor, and there too is a problem when government cares more for war than feeding their own hungry people.

Today, according to the U.S. Census Bureau for the 2014 America’s Families and Living Arrangements table package includes:

Children living with two foreign-born parents: 38 percent have at least one foreign-born parent (28.3 million), and 10 percent live with a grandparent (7.4 million), 79 percent live with at least one sibling (58.5 million), 15 percent have a stay-at-home mother (10.8 million), and 0.6 percent have a stay-at-home father (420,000), 24 percent of children live with at least one foreign-born parent (18.1 million), Less than half (48 percent) of households today are married couples, down from 76 percent in 1940–  which costs an estimated $74.1 billion per year [US Census Bureau].

 I believe a certain proportion of society has been used as a scapegoat here.

 The reason the growth or expansion by government in the area is the existence of poor people, people working and still at poverty level, and more people coming into the country without means. It is the case, that whether black, white, Hispanic or some other people –there are poor people and some more so than others. Additionally, some have found themselves with and suddenly without because work ran out. Moreover, the fact that people need food, water, clean air—food being considered a common instead of public good is puzzling. For example, food is privatized which means a famer own the land which produces and sales that to private or corporate operations to sell to the public, and essentially, has taken even the right to grow food away from the public, that is, less people own land to grow their food, less people are educated to do so and so forth. Yet, to food is not considered a public good, but a need.

Jose Luis Vevero Pol (2014) wrote:

Air, water, and food are the three essential natural resources we human beings need to survive. Air is basically regarded as a public good. Water used to be considered a global public good up to the mid-20th century, but its very nature is highly disputed nowadays. However, usually we only pay for the purification and transportation of water. And then we have food, the third essential natural resource. The way we consider food has evolved since the 18th century, when the commons (land common to all) in Europe were gradually enclosed and transformed into privatized goods, either owned by private individuals or by the state or church. Communal property, that is customarily and legally considered as inalienable, indivisible, irreversible, not available for sale, and which cannot be encumbered or mortgaged, was transformed into private or public property. Since then, an increasing number of food production systems, such as wild fruits, coastal seafood areas, or oceanic fish stocks, have been privatized. This means that unless you have entitlements, such as proprietary rights or legal authorization, it’s almost impossible to get food freely from anywhere (Vevero Pol, 2014, para. 2).

Well, if people are poor and cannot buy their own food then this becomes a public problem. Consequently, it becomes a public problem when people are not well educated, are well educated, or in general cannot feed their families on minimum wage, as Lee, Johnson & Joyce (2008) stated the “Government responses to the demands of society” (Lee, 32) which says national hunger is a governmental issue. There is government concern as well when new people come into the land, as like immigration. Understandably, children whether natural or foreign have needed to be fed so the demand of the government to step in is broad covering healthcare and education over the importance of people eating? How can this be?

I agree with healthcare, but I do not agree with the public educational system in this country because it is not a fair one (Lee, 33). However, it’s a choice for parents to send their children there—still it is lacking for a proportionate number of students.

Concerning the FSP, however, government is local [i.e., handled by state] but there is a problem when senators during budget cuts decide that people need less food per month so the money can be placed somewhere else. Perhaps, those with the knife can spend a few days not knowing when they will eat next and see how that works for them.

That said, knowing America’s crooked politicians they will probably cheat and have someone sneaking them food while they lie and pretend they have been starving.

 

Related Articles

 One in Five Children Receive Food Stamps, Census Bureau Reports 

Why Isn’t Food a Public Good? 

HIV is Living Among Black America

slidethumb_fuelDid you know that 1 in 16 black men and 1 in 32 black women are diagnosed with HIV?

Statistics from the Center of Disease Control [CDC] estimate that in 2010, there were 44 percent of African American adults and adolescents carry the horrific burden of contracting and spreading the virus—13 and older.

Accordingly, African Americans account for 13 percent of the entire population but present with the virus eight times more than whites.

Here are the numbers:

  1. 70% African American men (14,700) of all new cases out of the 20,900 new cases reported
  2. African American men account for 63.6 new cases out of 100,000 populace which is 7 times higher than white men
  3. Men having sex with other men account for 72 percent (10,600) of new cases, and gay and bisexual men between the ages of 13-24 than any other race represented which means that Bisexual and gay men are more than 3 times more affected than other races
  4. African American women represent 29 percent of all new cases, that is 6.100 of adult and adolescent women, but since 2008 there is a decrease to 21 percent
  5. 1 percent out of 100,000 women have the virus which is 20 times higher than white women and 5 times more than Hispanic and Latino women

The need to bring this news to your house is urgent, and urgent for us all as a group; even more than for the individual who suffers such a fate. Consequently, when speaking concerning HIV as an epidemic in America the premise here is that people may not feel that the issue affects them since it’s not in their house. However, generally speaking the premise here is not the houses we live in per se’, but the house of Africans as a nation within America whose members are attracting the virus daily. Let us not forget that end of the woeful event for many is death; therefore, there is a need to deliver this news to your door, to my door and the doors of our neighbors that we are dying ever so slowly from the silence of non-adherence to the call that HIV creeps softly, but AIDS kills loudly.

I want all of us to get this warning, because we see a very small sound coming from health officials concerning this matter, or, we do not take heed concerning taking care ourselves, to educate ourselves because our children are dying, our women, our men. It is the case, that with all the education available we must send this call out right up and to the doorsteps of every person to feed of its contents at the dinner table, and especially when we prepare to lay down unprotected.

I ask —do your love yourself? We are going in-depth about this topic, dedicating much time to discuss every single detail to alleviate and protect our house that means the group, the family and the individual. It is the case that if we do not learn the truth about the behavior that leads to contact then no one can save us.
Look for more information on HIV and African Americans coming soon!

Watch: Out of Control: The AIDS Epidemic in Black America

A Call to Amendment: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

No_Child_Left_Behind_Act

Overview

The No Child Left behind Act of 2001, established during the Bush administration would ensure that all children receive fair and equal access to quality education. More specifically, in 2002, the policy required that all states test their students in reading, and math starting from grades three through grade eight, and again when the student reached high school level where students were to meet or exceed reading and math requirements. In addition, the act would help close the gap of achievement for students [according to the United States Department of Education] by providing quality education where focus was on (a) accountability and assurance to disadvantaged children, (b) flexibility that allowed federal funds to be used to improve student achievement, (c) research based education which placed emphasis on programs and practices that proved effective through scientific research, and (d) parent options which provided choices for Title 1 school parents (No Child Left Behind Act 2001). However, at present, the policy though well written has not taken shape, and neither has there been offered relief to support all students for which the policy was created other than to transfer a student passing from the school where the environment has become academically unsafe. Moreover, because of racial disparities and economic conditions such as poverty in districts the children are further subjugated to even poorer learning environments where there are meager classroom materials and less than adequate instruction. Therefore, this article will propose change to the current policy,  an amendment;  along with, recommendations to abolish areas where the policy has been breached by providing information which is overlooked and or ignored in current more up to date research concerning the No Child Left Behind Act overall.

Problems with Current Policy

Firstly, there are a number of reoccurring problems with standard testing as it pertains to the NCLB Act, and these must be dealt with to ensure that all students taking the exam have equal success. It is the case, that nearly every child entering the public school system [particularly] among the African American and Hispanic students exhibit ongoing failure even while there is instruction for the same.  Hence, the occurrence of such failure among the students would beg the question to ask is it really a fact that students are dumb or dumbed down?  Reportedly, blacks currently score lower on vocabulary, reading and math tests; including, measurement of aptitude and intelligence than European Americans, and the authors stated that “On some tests the typical American black still scores below 75 percent of the American whites on the same test (Jencks & Phillips, 1998, para.1). Accordingly, teachers/educators are required to ‘teach’ the test rather than teaching regular curriculum that stimulates the intellect, or creativity in the student. It is the case that much of the school year is taken over with this type programing, and the morale of both students and educators is low because of failure to pass the test. Hence, armed with this information the premise of reauthorization of the act is of no regard. Consequently, the premise of reauthorization only acts to restore previously enacted documents which to date have failed to yield positive results. As a result, the failure of the practice in testing students has not fulfilled the element of improved research. Therefore, a total amendment, and or more acceptable replacement is needed.

Secondly, the promise to close the achievement gap as enacted by law has failed, and reportedly, the gap has not been lessoned for years. According to a New York Times (2009) article, “’No Child’ Law is not Closing the Racial Gap”, it is apparent there has not been an improvement in years.

Sam Dillion (2009) wrote:

Between the year 2004 and 2009 when the article was written that even though black and Hispanic elementary, middle and high school students all scored much higher on the federal test than three decades ago most of the gains made were not recent but during the desegregation efforts of the 1970s and 80s and was well before the No Child law which in the official description admonishes to close the achievement gap (Dillon, 2009, para. 3).

The Official Description

SEC. 1. SHORT TITLE

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday, the third day of January, two thousand and one.

An Act

To close the achievement gap with accountability, flexibility, and choice, so that no child is left behind. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled [No Child Left Section 1].

According to the Center of Education Policy (as reported by USA Today), there are 43,000 schools in the US that fail, or have failed which means 48 percent of students have made no progress since the enactment of the law. This information is troubling, because the only relief noticeable to parents is the opportunity once a child fails to transfer to a district passing. Hence, this too brings problems added to problems when transportation becomes a problem. Nevertheless, the report is telling that in Wisconsin (for example) the failure was extremely low at 11 percent. In explanation, of the failed standards for the federal exam policymakers have predicted failure rates of 82 percent, however, there are claims as well that the statistics are in error. In essence, to keep with the premise of requirement by law that every student perform at grade level by the year 2014 is impossible and has failed according to some educators (USA Today, 2014, para.1).

Thirdly, there is variance in the degree of difficulty as it pertains to the standardized testing. For example, in some school districts there are different tests given. In the USA Today article there is information given to that effect. The authors wrote, “State’s scores varied widely”. For example, in Georgia, 27% of schools did not meet targets, compared to 81% in Massachusetts and 16% in Kansas” In addition, the authors stated that even state officials argue that the act is do for rewrite, and further that officials offer little hope when lawmakers cannot agree on how to fix the problem of differences in difficulty of the testing between state, or, to amend it (USA Today, 2014, para. 5). Consequently, there are several reasons given for the variant in difficulty in certain states:

  1. Immigrant students
  2. Low income students, and
  3. State requirement to raise expectation in the number of students who pass each year (USA Today, 2015, para.6).

As a result, of these facts, the essence of the federal law which is intended to close the achievement gap by realizing equal achievement with regard to students at disadvantage has failed and is biased.

The Violation of Civil Rights is a Violation of Ethics

Fourthly, educators across the nation are seeming at their wits end and are of great travail concerning the premise of federal testing calling the test biased, however, advocates of civil rights concerning the original intent offer justice and equality as the Department of Education pronounced that biased testing is a civil rights issue and an ethical one as well. In an article, “Is it a student’s civil right to take a federally mandated standardized test?” author, Lyndsey Layton (2015) wrote:

Removing the requirement for annual testing would be a devastating step backward, for it is very hard to make sure our education system is serving every child well when we don’t have reliable, comparable achievement data on every child every year,” Kati Haycock, president of the Education Trust, said in recent testimony before the Senate education panel. Her group joined 20 civil rights organizations to lobby Congress to keep the requirement to test all children each year in math and ­reading (Layton, 2015, para. 4).

However, is this statement a fair assumption to say that the removal of the federal test is against civil rights? Conversely, teachers agree that teaching the test while forsaking the art of creativity and free expression surely takes away human rights of the student to think for themselves.

In an interview, a former educator and social worker detailed what many instructors go through in teaching and testing. During her interview, Jacqueline James (2015) was asked to (a) Recount factors of her work, (b) Factors leading to the testing being biased in her opinion, (c) Why she left the school system, (d) What the morale was like for students and faculty, and (e) Suggestion of changes that would contribute to the law.

She wrote:

Hello Everyone,

My name is Jacqueline Jordan. I have five years experience in the school system, including, elementary, middle and high school education. I held positions as substitute teacher, assistant and as a social worker. I also hold a Bachelor of Social Science with a minor in Education, and a Master of Education with a minor in Public Policy; as well as, a Master of Organizational Management.

As an educator, some of the main factors that were attributed to our work was tied to testing. Hence, the main issues were that I and other educators were frustrated that our students’ performance was not meeting expectations. Conversely, exam scores were lower than previous years and we spent many days and months trying to figure out why our students were struggling, and after interviewing students in their perspective classes and schools we were told that they did not understand the question. Therefore, it was determined that the questions on the tests had nothing in common with how certain groups of children think or rationalize.

I feel the testing is biased due to the overall testing results for students who otherwise pass their assignment during the entire school year only to take the test and fail. Moreover, the testing is set for certain populations of students who may be at a disadvantage. Hence, from my experience many racial minorities struggle to pass the test because of no relation to what they have learned, and neither to their personal lives. This too, is one of the reasons I left the district, because I feel it is not fair to our minority students.

Honestly speaking, the morale for the majority of faculty was low because of dissatisfaction in the work. Consequently, low morale among the faculty was the reason for high turnover in staff and low performance, and frankly, from my viewpoint the student morale was lower due to many not being able to understand, nor, were they accurately understand the assignments given. Hence, this occurrence caused behavioral issues, students skipping class, incomplete assignments and or unfocused students without the ability to engage. Therefore, all this overall also caused parents to feel as if their children were not being effectively taught by the school system which added to all parties being frustrated—parents, students and faculty. In general, the environment for most students was stressful due to non-relational material.

There are quite a few areas to policy and procedures that I would like to see amended:

  1. Teachers should not have to teach from a manual and or for a test.
  2. The material learned should be based on real world solutions.
  3. The students success and being promoted should not be based on the one test, especially when the student works diligently throughout the year to pass their assignments otherwise (Jacqueline Jordan, interview by Kayla Daily, October, 11, 2015, 4:19 p.m., interview Electronic Communication).

Dispelling Myths

A fifth reason, brings attention to a telling fact of how the academic success of students may be hampered is the myth that black students are not as smart as white or non black students, and this assumption may certainly seem realistic if one places judgement in relation to test scores, however, one would have something other than assumption to rely on. Jencks & Phillips (1998) argued that theorists promote the idea that low scores are attached to family background and or family environment which can be taken generally to say that all black people are dumb, unable to learn, and thus, unable these factors in turn can affect; or rather, do affect test scoring.

The authors explained:

In 1978 the Nigerian anthropologist John Ogbu suggested that cast-like minorities throughout the world tended to do poorly in school, even when they were visually indistinguishable from the majority. Later, Ogbu argued that because blacks had such limited opportunities in America, they developed an ‘oppositional’ culture that equated academic success with ‘acting white’ (Jencks & Phillips, 1998, p.6, para.4).

In general, the rejection of assumptive views tend to hide bias, or rather lend to biased thinking, and along with the awareness that there may bias lurking amidst the exams one can also be aware that text books containing the answers are not made available to the impoverished districts. In her interview, Jacqueline James (2015) alluded to that fact saying that ‘the children’ said they did not understand the questions (James, 2015). Hence, this begs the question that asks if the children do not understand even though the educators are teaching the tests then there is more than an agenda set up for their fail, and why is there a manual to teach from instead of a book? Could it be that the curriculum for the exam is not being taught? In this instance, a proposed plan for a policy amendment or rewrite is simple, either stop the federal exam or make the materials needed for the exam available to all students everywhere. In other words, there is no gap if there is not one continually created. Accordingly, the US Department of Education has promised equal access to education for all students. Hence, if one is to support the breach in civil rights as advocacy outlines then one would need to consider the evidence presented speaking of no access to testing materials equally, and the propensity that the teachers are given manual over the actual textbook. Therefore, the premise of testing as a civil right has been breached and has failed, because not only are teachers hindered but there is pressure for them to teach what they do not know may be the wrong material.

The No Child Left behind Act is a Breach of Budgeting

In an article, there is evidence that federal funding may be misappropriated. Hence, with funding and budget cuts so steep there must be need to look further into the matter. It is the case, that “Prior to 2001 and the implementation of the law that appropriations went up only $3 billion per year”, however, after are up 64% according to a CBS News report. Elizabeth Harrington (2011) wrote that from the years 2000 to 2001 the appropriation rate increased by 9%. However, after implementation of the program appropriations were up to 33% which is $42 billion (2001) and climbed to $56.2 billion (2002). Hence, it is notable that more funds are spent yearly, yet, the children fail more so even with all the programming.

Here is a further breakdown of expenditures according to CBS News (2011) report:

  • 1997 – $33.52 billion
  • 1998 – $35.67 billion
  • 1999 – $38.31 billion
  • 2000 – $38.44 billion
  • 2001 – $42.06 billion
  • 2002 – $56.17 billion
  • 2003 – $63.25 billion
  • 2004 – $67.21 billion
  • 2005 – $71.47 billion
  • 2006 – $100.04 billion (due to a jump in Federal Family Education Loans)
  • 2007 – $67.12 billion
  • 2008 – $68.57 billion
  • 2009 – $138.00 billion (regular spending of $39.88 billion plus $98.23 billion under the Recovery Act)
  • 2010 – $63.00 billion (Harrington, 2011, para.4).

There is no need to address the overall budget implemented concerning the NCLB when there is evidence of an astronomical amount of federal dollars spent even while the children fail at a rapid pace yearly. Hence, this begs the question where does the money really go? There is no reauthorization needed, no restore of the same disparaging occurrence as it relates to the law. That said, policymakers must address these issues immediately and reconsider their programming is not working and is wasting away tax payer dollars.

Lips & Fienberg (2007) wrote, that “Federally funded full time employees in state education agencies worked to implement education programs three times more than the number of employees working at the Department of Education (Lips & Fienberg, 2007, para. 3). Hence, here are workers making money for programing that is no good when the consideration should be on the text books, and other needed materials that make for a successful test score. There has already been evidence brought that the children understand that they do not understand the questions on the test when they have worked all year to learn. In essence, more money should be spent in the school to pay the districts’ teachers, and less money for programming that does not work. Therefore, the only cut to budget should state in policy to quit bogus federal government expenditures, because after all paying the teachers and funding the school so that all is equal access is the mission of NCLB.

Summary

The NCLB has failed to do what it was created to do in closing the achievement gap academically, because the children still fail and is in breach of promise. There is variance in the degree of difficulty involving the exam across states which promotes the premise of biased testing standards and is in breach of policy as the occurrence does not promote equality; and, which leads to a breach of civil rights.  The academic success of students has been hampered severely because of myths that non whites cannot learn as favorably as white students. Hence, this thought is promoted further as it relates to tests scores more favorable to the white students. There is evidence that federal budget as it pertains to NCLB may be misappropriated where money is spent implementing programs rather than actual research to find error in testing.

Conclusion

Finally, as it pertains to amendment the NCLB has left a disparaging mood among educators across the nation to adamantly lift up a cry out for those who stand to lose more from standardized testing. It is the case that the states have failed the students of which the need for educational equality is upheld. Hence, for blacks and other minorities who will take their place in the world, that is,  a world in need of equality where their fate should not be determined by a test. Hence, the premise of education and all its characteristics should say in policy all is equal, and not according to multiple choice, unless the multiples of choices are discerned from a creative mind with the ability to think its way through the problems presented with logic and sound reasoning. Policy makers should then, take the evidence presented here; along with, the research provided to make sound judgments and see that what is happening in the school system is questionable, and is not equal access as the law is written. Rewrite it then, make it plain to all that you mean what you say is the cry of all who speak of civil rights, on the streets and now in education. Notably, change will come—with an equal policy that truly stands with all accepted as equal.

Related Articles  

Why Poor Schools Can’t Win at Standardized Testing

Not Child Left Behind is not Closing a Racial Gap

Education Spending Up 64% Under No Child Left Behind But Test Scores Improve Little

The Black-White Test Score Gap. CHAPTER ONE  

The Administrative Burden of No Child Left Behind 

Is it a student’s civil right to take a federally mandated standardized test?

Report: Half of US Schools Fail Federal Standards

How No Child Left Behind Benefits African Americans 

Your Sunday Bread: No Peace but a Sword

TheWriteAmerica-Patriot-Devotional-Image-5_27_14 Today’s discussion is Peace, and we have heard scripture which enlightens us to seek peace. However, scriptures also give us an image of peace that does not come from the worldview of peace.

For example, when someone is fighting it requires a treaty of peace between the parties to become ‘peaceful’ again. However, for many, especially when we view how America got its start and to break away for Britain the citizens became rebellious, that is to say, the citizens of America no longer stood with or for what their forefathers represented.

In biblical view Yahusha is quoted as saying, “I come not for peace [or prosperity] but with a sword” which is direct, and great contrast to what we have been given that peace is among us.

He added, “I come to turn [or rather persuade] a mother against daughter, and a father against son, and a daughter n law against a mother n law [and] a man’s enemies will be the members of his household”. So then, in this instance, we get not peace but war for what is right.

Can anyone hear? That its not all smooth sailing in this, that there are going to be some changes made and it starts at home. Living set apart is rebellion against the normal of world view.

Today:

Seek peace and pursue it means peace in set apart living. Come back to Torah, but be warned that in doing so destroys what we believe peace to be.

For your hearing:

Matthew 10: 34