A Call to Amendment: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

No_Child_Left_Behind_Act

Overview

The No Child Left behind Act of 2001, established during the Bush administration would ensure that all children receive fair and equal access to quality education. More specifically, in 2002, the policy required that all states test their students in reading, and math starting from grades three through grade eight, and again when the student reached high school level where students were to meet or exceed reading and math requirements. In addition, the act would help close the gap of achievement for students [according to the United States Department of Education] by providing quality education where focus was on (a) accountability and assurance to disadvantaged children, (b) flexibility that allowed federal funds to be used to improve student achievement, (c) research based education which placed emphasis on programs and practices that proved effective through scientific research, and (d) parent options which provided choices for Title 1 school parents (No Child Left Behind Act 2001). However, at present, the policy though well written has not taken shape, and neither has there been offered relief to support all students for which the policy was created other than to transfer a student passing from the school where the environment has become academically unsafe. Moreover, because of racial disparities and economic conditions such as poverty in districts the children are further subjugated to even poorer learning environments where there are meager classroom materials and less than adequate instruction. Therefore, this article will propose change to the current policy,  an amendment;  along with, recommendations to abolish areas where the policy has been breached by providing information which is overlooked and or ignored in current more up to date research concerning the No Child Left Behind Act overall.

Problems with Current Policy

Firstly, there are a number of reoccurring problems with standard testing as it pertains to the NCLB Act, and these must be dealt with to ensure that all students taking the exam have equal success. It is the case, that nearly every child entering the public school system [particularly] among the African American and Hispanic students exhibit ongoing failure even while there is instruction for the same.  Hence, the occurrence of such failure among the students would beg the question to ask is it really a fact that students are dumb or dumbed down?  Reportedly, blacks currently score lower on vocabulary, reading and math tests; including, measurement of aptitude and intelligence than European Americans, and the authors stated that “On some tests the typical American black still scores below 75 percent of the American whites on the same test (Jencks & Phillips, 1998, para.1). Accordingly, teachers/educators are required to ‘teach’ the test rather than teaching regular curriculum that stimulates the intellect, or creativity in the student. It is the case that much of the school year is taken over with this type programing, and the morale of both students and educators is low because of failure to pass the test. Hence, armed with this information the premise of reauthorization of the act is of no regard. Consequently, the premise of reauthorization only acts to restore previously enacted documents which to date have failed to yield positive results. As a result, the failure of the practice in testing students has not fulfilled the element of improved research. Therefore, a total amendment, and or more acceptable replacement is needed.

Secondly, the promise to close the achievement gap as enacted by law has failed, and reportedly, the gap has not been lessoned for years. According to a New York Times (2009) article, “’No Child’ Law is not Closing the Racial Gap”, it is apparent there has not been an improvement in years.

Sam Dillion (2009) wrote:

Between the year 2004 and 2009 when the article was written that even though black and Hispanic elementary, middle and high school students all scored much higher on the federal test than three decades ago most of the gains made were not recent but during the desegregation efforts of the 1970s and 80s and was well before the No Child law which in the official description admonishes to close the achievement gap (Dillon, 2009, para. 3).

The Official Description

SEC. 1. SHORT TITLE

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday, the third day of January, two thousand and one.

An Act

To close the achievement gap with accountability, flexibility, and choice, so that no child is left behind. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled [No Child Left Section 1].

According to the Center of Education Policy (as reported by USA Today), there are 43,000 schools in the US that fail, or have failed which means 48 percent of students have made no progress since the enactment of the law. This information is troubling, because the only relief noticeable to parents is the opportunity once a child fails to transfer to a district passing. Hence, this too brings problems added to problems when transportation becomes a problem. Nevertheless, the report is telling that in Wisconsin (for example) the failure was extremely low at 11 percent. In explanation, of the failed standards for the federal exam policymakers have predicted failure rates of 82 percent, however, there are claims as well that the statistics are in error. In essence, to keep with the premise of requirement by law that every student perform at grade level by the year 2014 is impossible and has failed according to some educators (USA Today, 2014, para.1).

Thirdly, there is variance in the degree of difficulty as it pertains to the standardized testing. For example, in some school districts there are different tests given. In the USA Today article there is information given to that effect. The authors wrote, “State’s scores varied widely”. For example, in Georgia, 27% of schools did not meet targets, compared to 81% in Massachusetts and 16% in Kansas” In addition, the authors stated that even state officials argue that the act is do for rewrite, and further that officials offer little hope when lawmakers cannot agree on how to fix the problem of differences in difficulty of the testing between state, or, to amend it (USA Today, 2014, para. 5). Consequently, there are several reasons given for the variant in difficulty in certain states:

  1. Immigrant students
  2. Low income students, and
  3. State requirement to raise expectation in the number of students who pass each year (USA Today, 2015, para.6).

As a result, of these facts, the essence of the federal law which is intended to close the achievement gap by realizing equal achievement with regard to students at disadvantage has failed and is biased.

The Violation of Civil Rights is a Violation of Ethics

Fourthly, educators across the nation are seeming at their wits end and are of great travail concerning the premise of federal testing calling the test biased, however, advocates of civil rights concerning the original intent offer justice and equality as the Department of Education pronounced that biased testing is a civil rights issue and an ethical one as well. In an article, “Is it a student’s civil right to take a federally mandated standardized test?” author, Lyndsey Layton (2015) wrote:

Removing the requirement for annual testing would be a devastating step backward, for it is very hard to make sure our education system is serving every child well when we don’t have reliable, comparable achievement data on every child every year,” Kati Haycock, president of the Education Trust, said in recent testimony before the Senate education panel. Her group joined 20 civil rights organizations to lobby Congress to keep the requirement to test all children each year in math and ­reading (Layton, 2015, para. 4).

However, is this statement a fair assumption to say that the removal of the federal test is against civil rights? Conversely, teachers agree that teaching the test while forsaking the art of creativity and free expression surely takes away human rights of the student to think for themselves.

In an interview, a former educator and social worker detailed what many instructors go through in teaching and testing. During her interview, Jacqueline James (2015) was asked to (a) Recount factors of her work, (b) Factors leading to the testing being biased in her opinion, (c) Why she left the school system, (d) What the morale was like for students and faculty, and (e) Suggestion of changes that would contribute to the law.

She wrote:

Hello Everyone,

My name is Jacqueline Jordan. I have five years experience in the school system, including, elementary, middle and high school education. I held positions as substitute teacher, assistant and as a social worker. I also hold a Bachelor of Social Science with a minor in Education, and a Master of Education with a minor in Public Policy; as well as, a Master of Organizational Management.

As an educator, some of the main factors that were attributed to our work was tied to testing. Hence, the main issues were that I and other educators were frustrated that our students’ performance was not meeting expectations. Conversely, exam scores were lower than previous years and we spent many days and months trying to figure out why our students were struggling, and after interviewing students in their perspective classes and schools we were told that they did not understand the question. Therefore, it was determined that the questions on the tests had nothing in common with how certain groups of children think or rationalize.

I feel the testing is biased due to the overall testing results for students who otherwise pass their assignment during the entire school year only to take the test and fail. Moreover, the testing is set for certain populations of students who may be at a disadvantage. Hence, from my experience many racial minorities struggle to pass the test because of no relation to what they have learned, and neither to their personal lives. This too, is one of the reasons I left the district, because I feel it is not fair to our minority students.

Honestly speaking, the morale for the majority of faculty was low because of dissatisfaction in the work. Consequently, low morale among the faculty was the reason for high turnover in staff and low performance, and frankly, from my viewpoint the student morale was lower due to many not being able to understand, nor, were they accurately understand the assignments given. Hence, this occurrence caused behavioral issues, students skipping class, incomplete assignments and or unfocused students without the ability to engage. Therefore, all this overall also caused parents to feel as if their children were not being effectively taught by the school system which added to all parties being frustrated—parents, students and faculty. In general, the environment for most students was stressful due to non-relational material.

There are quite a few areas to policy and procedures that I would like to see amended:

  1. Teachers should not have to teach from a manual and or for a test.
  2. The material learned should be based on real world solutions.
  3. The students success and being promoted should not be based on the one test, especially when the student works diligently throughout the year to pass their assignments otherwise (Jacqueline Jordan, interview by Kayla Daily, October, 11, 2015, 4:19 p.m., interview Electronic Communication).

Dispelling Myths

A fifth reason, brings attention to a telling fact of how the academic success of students may be hampered is the myth that black students are not as smart as white or non black students, and this assumption may certainly seem realistic if one places judgement in relation to test scores, however, one would have something other than assumption to rely on. Jencks & Phillips (1998) argued that theorists promote the idea that low scores are attached to family background and or family environment which can be taken generally to say that all black people are dumb, unable to learn, and thus, unable these factors in turn can affect; or rather, do affect test scoring.

The authors explained:

In 1978 the Nigerian anthropologist John Ogbu suggested that cast-like minorities throughout the world tended to do poorly in school, even when they were visually indistinguishable from the majority. Later, Ogbu argued that because blacks had such limited opportunities in America, they developed an ‘oppositional’ culture that equated academic success with ‘acting white’ (Jencks & Phillips, 1998, p.6, para.4).

In general, the rejection of assumptive views tend to hide bias, or rather lend to biased thinking, and along with the awareness that there may bias lurking amidst the exams one can also be aware that text books containing the answers are not made available to the impoverished districts. In her interview, Jacqueline James (2015) alluded to that fact saying that ‘the children’ said they did not understand the questions (James, 2015). Hence, this begs the question that asks if the children do not understand even though the educators are teaching the tests then there is more than an agenda set up for their fail, and why is there a manual to teach from instead of a book? Could it be that the curriculum for the exam is not being taught? In this instance, a proposed plan for a policy amendment or rewrite is simple, either stop the federal exam or make the materials needed for the exam available to all students everywhere. In other words, there is no gap if there is not one continually created. Accordingly, the US Department of Education has promised equal access to education for all students. Hence, if one is to support the breach in civil rights as advocacy outlines then one would need to consider the evidence presented speaking of no access to testing materials equally, and the propensity that the teachers are given manual over the actual textbook. Therefore, the premise of testing as a civil right has been breached and has failed, because not only are teachers hindered but there is pressure for them to teach what they do not know may be the wrong material.

The No Child Left behind Act is a Breach of Budgeting

In an article, there is evidence that federal funding may be misappropriated. Hence, with funding and budget cuts so steep there must be need to look further into the matter. It is the case, that “Prior to 2001 and the implementation of the law that appropriations went up only $3 billion per year”, however, after are up 64% according to a CBS News report. Elizabeth Harrington (2011) wrote that from the years 2000 to 2001 the appropriation rate increased by 9%. However, after implementation of the program appropriations were up to 33% which is $42 billion (2001) and climbed to $56.2 billion (2002). Hence, it is notable that more funds are spent yearly, yet, the children fail more so even with all the programming.

Here is a further breakdown of expenditures according to CBS News (2011) report:

  • 1997 – $33.52 billion
  • 1998 – $35.67 billion
  • 1999 – $38.31 billion
  • 2000 – $38.44 billion
  • 2001 – $42.06 billion
  • 2002 – $56.17 billion
  • 2003 – $63.25 billion
  • 2004 – $67.21 billion
  • 2005 – $71.47 billion
  • 2006 – $100.04 billion (due to a jump in Federal Family Education Loans)
  • 2007 – $67.12 billion
  • 2008 – $68.57 billion
  • 2009 – $138.00 billion (regular spending of $39.88 billion plus $98.23 billion under the Recovery Act)
  • 2010 – $63.00 billion (Harrington, 2011, para.4).

There is no need to address the overall budget implemented concerning the NCLB when there is evidence of an astronomical amount of federal dollars spent even while the children fail at a rapid pace yearly. Hence, this begs the question where does the money really go? There is no reauthorization needed, no restore of the same disparaging occurrence as it relates to the law. That said, policymakers must address these issues immediately and reconsider their programming is not working and is wasting away tax payer dollars.

Lips & Fienberg (2007) wrote, that “Federally funded full time employees in state education agencies worked to implement education programs three times more than the number of employees working at the Department of Education (Lips & Fienberg, 2007, para. 3). Hence, here are workers making money for programing that is no good when the consideration should be on the text books, and other needed materials that make for a successful test score. There has already been evidence brought that the children understand that they do not understand the questions on the test when they have worked all year to learn. In essence, more money should be spent in the school to pay the districts’ teachers, and less money for programming that does not work. Therefore, the only cut to budget should state in policy to quit bogus federal government expenditures, because after all paying the teachers and funding the school so that all is equal access is the mission of NCLB.

Summary

The NCLB has failed to do what it was created to do in closing the achievement gap academically, because the children still fail and is in breach of promise. There is variance in the degree of difficulty involving the exam across states which promotes the premise of biased testing standards and is in breach of policy as the occurrence does not promote equality; and, which leads to a breach of civil rights.  The academic success of students has been hampered severely because of myths that non whites cannot learn as favorably as white students. Hence, this thought is promoted further as it relates to tests scores more favorable to the white students. There is evidence that federal budget as it pertains to NCLB may be misappropriated where money is spent implementing programs rather than actual research to find error in testing.

Conclusion

Finally, as it pertains to amendment the NCLB has left a disparaging mood among educators across the nation to adamantly lift up a cry out for those who stand to lose more from standardized testing. It is the case that the states have failed the students of which the need for educational equality is upheld. Hence, for blacks and other minorities who will take their place in the world, that is,  a world in need of equality where their fate should not be determined by a test. Hence, the premise of education and all its characteristics should say in policy all is equal, and not according to multiple choice, unless the multiples of choices are discerned from a creative mind with the ability to think its way through the problems presented with logic and sound reasoning. Policy makers should then, take the evidence presented here; along with, the research provided to make sound judgments and see that what is happening in the school system is questionable, and is not equal access as the law is written. Rewrite it then, make it plain to all that you mean what you say is the cry of all who speak of civil rights, on the streets and now in education. Notably, change will come—with an equal policy that truly stands with all accepted as equal.

Related Articles  

Why Poor Schools Can’t Win at Standardized Testing

Not Child Left Behind is not Closing a Racial Gap

Education Spending Up 64% Under No Child Left Behind But Test Scores Improve Little

The Black-White Test Score Gap. CHAPTER ONE  

The Administrative Burden of No Child Left Behind 

Is it a student’s civil right to take a federally mandated standardized test?

Report: Half of US Schools Fail Federal Standards

How No Child Left Behind Benefits African Americans 

Civil Rights: The Fight to be Equal with God

Selma_to_Montgomery_MarchesTo be discriminated against in America is so common that those who live in the wake of it come to expect it in some form or another daily if they are awakened to see it. In fact, to be black in America is rough, difficult to be so; however, the problem is not the people who are progenitors of racism and discrimination it is the people who believe themselves equal to the whites perception of themselves. This is not to say that in any way should so called blacks be continually mistreated, or to place themselves in harms way; however, to come to a realistic view and see that if white people see themselves as God in their own eyes, and they rule the country—then also in their eyes every single person that comes to America willingly or not is considered to be, or should become a servant. Consequently,  there is a problem with thinking that everyone should be a servant, and the problem with that thought is those who feel that way have a tendency to mistreat people. Another view is that people who are descendants of slave owners typically have a mindset that America, the nation is theirs because they built it, and that if their money paid for the country to become great; then  regardless of how they came about that money while committing immoral acts against mankind in their minds they are God, that is, God has the money, God owns the land, God writes the policy, God is America’s Dream, and because of this thinking of themselves as God by the white people others should just look over the fact that GOD is racist. In this article there is discussion concerning current policy in regards to civil rights initiatives so called blacks pursuit to become like God.

The Fight to be like God

Of course, today, with President Obama’s position as head of the country some people  may consider that there is not discrimination any longer, or that the country has had a breakthrough since he took office, however, the election of a mixed race only adds fuel to the fact that Obama is half black and half God to the whites, or rather, a pawn to be used by those who to many in their own minds are GOD. In explanation, the CEO of the National Policy Institute, Sam Dickson (2014) spoke concerning the policy set  during the writing of the Declaration of Independence for the country’s break with their motherland Britain, In his video, “America: The God that Failed”, he said that the section of the declaration which speaks about ‘inalienable rights’ was taken off the paper of Britain’s document and placed into the American one. In that he stated that “a man without a country” cannot possibly have the type dedication to the cause of those who call America their home and built it (Dickson, 2014). Speaking frankly,  Dickson is saying that no one can be equal with God–one nation under God rule. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, was created from legislature in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution that mentions rhetoric such as ‘alienable rights given by God—life , liberty and pursuit of freedom’, and ,’ all men are created equal’; however, at the time of the signing did not include blacks. Further, a realistic view of this is that no one can be what God says he is not—equal or otherwise, and it is a fair statement to say that words written by God becomes law. Consequently, here one should be reminded that the three-fifth human clause has yet to be amended. It is the case that great strides have been made as  result of rallies of civil disobedience to God, and notably the subservient blacks did not ask for much.

Initiatives in the Fight to be like God

Dye (2010) wrote that there are differences of opinion concerning racism in the country where whites think not much of it and do not think it a problem, and blacks see it differently stating there is a serious problem with racism (Dye, 2010).  Although, civil rights issues most popular are covered in the legislation there are others that have yet to be such as police brutality which is really brutality by God in uniform and the right to not be murdered in the streets, unarmed like dogs is an ongoing pursuit. Hence, the initiatives set pertaining to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is paled in comparison to these unsolved. More specifically, civil pursuits of equality  to be like God have been broad and include many milestones in the rights of people of color in all areas of living—mainly protection against discrimination for:  (a) publics places, but not the right to assemble peaceably, but also includes equal access to schools and or equal access to, restaurants, restrooms, (b) outlaw of Jim Crowe laws which prevented access to voting, (c) employment for black people and equal pay standards, and (d) housing which include mortgage lending discrimination and the tendency for landlords to be slum lords. Presently, however, there have been several amendments to the act which now include protection to women in the work place and working while pregnant, right to choice of healthcare, gay or sodomite marriage rights, right to not be bullied, and several court related rights that are written also but are still unequal in quality and perception in the pursuit to be God’s equal. For example, although there is legislation to state that negroes can work along side God instead of being relegated to back doors, cleaning God’s toilet or watching God’s children black women can now work alongside white women and may be as  qualified even more so in some cases or equally as qualified but still make less than their non black colleagues. Additionally, black women and men are lowest paid who work along side their white colleagues, and who all are degreed status; however, here is where the inequality lies, that is, blacks chosen last over whites and even if chosen are paid considerably less than whites and this occurrence can happen in the hiring process. In explanation consider the following scenario:

A local auto parts company is hiring for a management position. After the interviews, however, the Human Resources Department has narrowed the search for a manager down to two candidates who both hold the degreed status required for the position, and they both have the required amount of management experience needed– their names are Christopher Columbus, and Michael Spears. Hence, unable to decide between the two the hiring manager calls both in for a second interview. In the interviews; however, no salary is ever discussed, but  in a meeting between the hiring manager and her boss is where the salary for the position was initially decided that the position would pay $32,000 per year. Additionally, after the interviews the team decides that they will not hire Christopher Columbus and call Michael in for a third and final interview where they will offer his package at that time. Subsequently, at the interview they tell Michael that the position pays $10.00 an hour which is $19,200 per year instead of the $32,000 a year that the hiring managers had previously planned to offer. Hence, this begs the question and asks why? It is the case, that not only is Michael an African American but the team sees that as a chance to save money, and decided that he has the skills needed to fit the job description; however, their decision to not pay him equally as unto the white candidate because of his race is discrimination.

The Right to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness equal to God

How unfortunate, that anyone living in a country as great as America would be subjugated to such biases and discrimination, and one could say that the white man was discriminated against as well, however, the opportunity will await the white over black in greater measure. Moreover,  this type discrimination is difficult to prove and applicants should obtain the ability to seek out information regarding pay in a field or for positions before applying. Generally, however, in the interview applicants are discouraged from raising questions about pay before the subject is brought up. Hence, this occurrence removes any chance of the applicant being warned concerning the agenda against them. In his address concerning women and equal pay discrimination, President Obama stated that unequal pay is not just a woman’s issue but a family issue and the aforementioned scenario addresses that more so, because men are still the heads of the household in many cases, and although in so called black families there are women who are forced into the role of head of the house there is a need for men to be paid as much as white men in the workplace so they too can take care of their families.

President Obama wrote concerning the  Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act:

Because while this bill bears her name, Lilly knows this story isn’t just about her. It’s the story of women across this country still earning just 78 cents for every dollar men earn – women of color even less – which means that today, in the year 2009, countless women are still losing thousands of dollars in salary, income and retirement savings over the course of a lifetime. But equal pay is by no means just a women’s issue – it’s a family issue. It’s about parents who find themselves with less money for tuition or child care; couples who wind up with less to retire on; households where, when one breadwinner is paid less than she deserves, that’s the difference between affording the mortgage – or not; between keeping the heat on, or paying the doctor’s bills – or not. And in this economy, when so many folks are already working harder for less and struggling to get by, the last thing they can afford is losing part of each month’s paycheck to simple discrimination. So in signing this bill today, I intend to send a clear message: That making our economy work means making sure it works for everyone. That there are no second class citizens in our workplaces, and that it’s not just unfair and illegal – but bad for business – to pay someone less because of their gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion or disability. And that justice isn’t about some abstract legal theory, or footnote in a casebook – it’s about how our laws affect the daily realities of people’s lives: their ability to make a living and care for their families and achieve their goals (Obama, 2015).

Notably, the pursuit in the fight to be equal to God is ongoing for both genders of the black race, and future policies should reflect change in the areas of: (a) three fifth human amendment, (b) raising the minimum raise, (c) equal fair pay for black men and women, according to their educational level, and more thought and effort placed on anti-bullying legislation to include police brutality.

In the strides to become equal to God, blacks have not gained strides equal to whites in the fifty plus years of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 execution. Moreover, in the shadow of the attitude of  whites in America blacks made a huge mistake in the supposed fight of equality, that is, that God cannot accept the people who they crossed the Atlantic to steal them  from their families, a people of culture, of a continent of African people who were sold into slavery. In addition, so called blacks would be wise to remember that in the eyes of America the slaves cannot be equal to their master whether in education, the workplace, health or welfare, that the servant is not equal to their God, and pursuit to find a place equal is for the white man a dream but for the black man in America who covet such a place has become a nightmare. That a said the pursuit continues.

Related Articles

 America: The God that Failed

Dye, T.R. (2010).  Understanding public policy (13th ed.).  Longman: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780205757428. Custom ISBN: 9781256054160

 Strengthening Civil Rights 

Civil Rights Issues

Democracy or Tyranny

blackpanthers

 If you mean the size of the government as in Big Government where there is too much power given to certain facets thereof then I am inclined to agree, because here I must speak out about police brutality and all that occurs because of narcissism turned loose on the public, or rather, a particular portion.

In speaking of so- called ‘freedom’ and ‘liberty’ and ‘justice’ then someone has definitely missed it here.

Let me explain. It is the case, until recently, or rather I will say times past that I used to believe that when I called the police that I was within my rights as a citizen to be protected under the 1st Amendment to the constitution, however that has changed because I no longer trust the government. In saying that I no longer trust the government means that I no longer trust the police, I no longer trust them. Why? According to the amendment supposedly all people have  a right to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness, but its not that way because I can’t see that fully for everyone. I don’t trust them, the police, because the entire system is corrupt across the board, racism and harassment, and discrimination and murder. I do not trust them, and then if that were not enough they allowed to claim all- out- war on unarmed people; that is, military gear and all. For what? Strong arming? One has to ask since when does a city or state or country give permission for their enforcement to attack their citizens and then call that behavior a civil society when its barbaric?

David Boaz (1997) wrote:

Unfortunately, most governments fail to live up to Thomas Jefferson’s vision in two ways. First, they don’t do a good job of swiftly and surely apprehending and punishing those who violate our rights. Second, they seek to aggrandize themselves by taking on more and more power, intruding themselves into more aspects of our lives, demanding more of our money, and depriving us of our liberty. (Boaz, 1997).

I am inclined to agree, there is not a job doing anything except casting blame in this area. Most people killed at the hand of some mentally deranged cop are innocent. Oops, but they say the victim brought it on themselves, especially the 12 year old playing with a toy gun. Yes, innocent.

I think government, is overpowering for some citizens [See: Third Ohio Man Wrongly Accused of 1975 Murder Exonerated].

Furthermore, Boaz (1997) stated further “This basic understanding of the distinction between society and the state, between the people and the rulers, has deep roots in Western civilization, going back to Samuel’s warning to the people of Israel that a king would take your sons, and your daughters, and your fields and to the Christian concept that the state is conceived in sin.”  (Boaz, 1997).

I can agree with that, except the Christian part. However, as it stands blacks are still banished to the field and treated lower than low in this country and government is the ring leader of all of it. That’s influence, that’s power! So you don’t like all the help with housing, with food, or living and take it out on us in the street?

Push Pull Strategy in Business Marketing

Pull strategy progression: promotion, customer, retailer, and manufacturer. Push strategy progression: manufacturer, retailer, promotion, and customer.

Photo by: Ogden, J. R., & Ogden, D. T. (2014). Integrated marketing communications: Advertising, public relations, and more. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.


The three sales strategies for promotion are push, pull and as Ogden & Ogden (2014) wrote, “there can be a combination of the two”(Ogden & Ogden, 2014).

As illustrated in Figure 6.4, the push and pull strategy works thus: (a) the promotion which prompts potential retailers and customers to buy, (b) the deal between the manufacturer and the service provider.


For example, in purchasing my daughter’s tablet some months ago from Sam’s club the tablet came with a limited manufacturer’s warranty, and I also had the options to purchase an additional extension warranty from Sam’s. It is the case, that the tablet malfunctioned and as a result the manufacturer after several attempts to repair it had to replace it. Then a few months after that my daughter tripped over the dog outside [he is a big dog] and broke the screen on the tablet, Sam’s warranty refunded the full purchase price for that brand stating that the screen was too expensive to repair. This type service is a good promotion tactic for retailers and manufacturers alike.

Finally, (c) the promotion to the customer, and it is the case, that Black Friday is a good promotional tactic where people fat from the holiday turkey are ready to spend. It is past sane thinking why people would get up at three in the morning to stand in line for a sale, however, the tradition lives on for those who want first tab at new line Jordan’s or even first dibs at a new television. Hence, the push, pull strategy works well for all who aim to buy and sell.

Your Sunday Bread: Escape or Excuse

download (1)It is a bunch of crock and bull to use the excuse ‘its a spirit’ concerning homosexuality, or rather, all sin for that matter. Well yeah, duhhh it is a spirit, but if we have authority to case out demons in the Name because these people are carrying a wicked spirit then why aren’t people able to cast those out?

In essence, we yell its a spirit, because we do not know what to do. Its like giving up, helpless, without hope and walking away.

Hence, here comes another excuse because people cannot get help which says they are born that way. Bull corn, fooey and boloney! No! Yah said male and female. So if someone is saying different that means they are lying to them self. A lie has to be thought of, convincing self to belief and then acted out. Then someone none discerning believes the lie too wanting to be well like, wanting to be a good parent, friend, not wanting to offend. People are tricked to unbelief. Because there is always a way out. Yah said it, he provides an escape (1 Corinthians 10:13), but we don’t want escape we want excuse. The Most High said that people are without excuse (Romans 1).

Come on now let us reason. Better yet, let us look at the fact that anyone needs help. There is a problem that has over powered the so called church, and its not cause people are not praying, it is because they are praying in the wrong Name.

For your hearing:

Romans 1-2

Gun Control and Lobbyists

right to carrySpecial interest groups, also known as “Advocacy groups” carry much weight in the political area. Take advocates of gun control which is a big issue across the board in America where many seek to do away with gun play even in hunting. There are mixed feelings with regard to who has a right to carry and some feel that their rights might be violated.

In the article, “Special-interest groups–In the cross-hairs,” the The National Rifle Association lobby to protect such rights in the political area siting their 1st Amendment right to carry and bear arms are violated with new or pending policy changes where guns are concerned saying, “Thirty years ago, the NRA was principally an organisation for hunters and sports-shooters. Lobbying against gun-control laws was a rare activity, since there were few such laws about. (The NRA’s then president, General Franklin Orth, testified before Congress in the 1960s in support of a gun-control measure: a bill banning mail-order gun sales after the Kennedy assassination.) Since the mid-1970s, though, the NRA has increasingly focused its supposed 3.6m members and its $137m annual budget on two political objectives: helping to elect pro-gun-rights candidates, and then lobbying to ensure that they keep the faith when gun-control laws are mooted in Congress. According to the Centre for Responsive Politics, which tracks the impact of political donations, the NRA has given nearly $8.8m since 1991 directly to parties and individual candidates. It has shelled out many times that sum on indirect lobbying. Four-fifths of this money goes to Republicans; and it has been Republicans in Congress who have mainly been responsible, in one way or another, for blocking gun-control laws.”

The above information from even one group is huge and conveys truth while answering the question if special interest groups can ‘buy’ an elected official I can say with great confidence that it is most probable and likely that this is taking place. Hence, it is the case that media time can be bought as well. Yes, there is a great influence here.

In recent activities where President Obama went against the senate to establish stiffer penalties for our gun- toting counter parts he was hit with heavy resistance. I agree that it is fair that those who own guns be put on a tight leash, and while this might not seem fair to respectable law abiding citizens; the consequences of carrying should not outweigh or weigh as much as some who are carrying guns elsewhere. Hence, today, whether on the street or in the office mental illness runs deep in America. Hence, One nation, one gun law for all.

Those against guns feel the sting of them in their neighborhoods. Four years later, a family still suffers from a gunman who shot and killed a young girl and her grandmother during her birthday party.

The article, “Man gets death sentence for killing 2 at Fort Worth birthday party”, gives this account:

“Erick Davila was forgiven by the victims’ family after Friday’s sentencing.

Davila, 21, did not react when his death sentence was read Friday in the courtroom of state District Judge Sharen Wilson. The jury that convicted Davila last week of capital murder deliberated about seven hours over two days before deciding his punishment.

He was convicted of fatally shooting Annette Stevenson, 48, and Queshawn Stevenson, 5, in April during a children’s birthday party. Four other people, including three children, were wounded.

Davila was a member of a Fort Worth street gang, and authorities believe Annette Stevenson’s adult son, Jerry Stevenson, may have been his intended target in retaliation for a prior gang-related incident in which Davila was wounded. Jerry Stevenson was unhurt during Davila’s shooting rampage, which occurred at Annette Stevenson’s East Fort Worth home.” (Dennis, 2009).

This event happened just four blocks from my home and I say money cannot buy common sense. This is what advocacy with special interest groups; such as, guns and other issues should fight to win.

Source:

 The Economist

NRA-ILA, Institute for Legislative Action

prisonMan gets death sentence for killing 2 at Fort Worth birthday party

Watch: Trigger Happy: NRA Wing-NUTS Dig in As Obama Takes Gun Control Debate To The People

The Breakthrough: Online Journalism

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt prohibited...

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt prohibited racial discrimination in the military. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The way America communicates with each other and the rest of the world has in the past met with significant challenges from earlier beginnings of the printing press which issued a record number of propaganda to England on grievous matters; as well as, gathering together those minds who think expressively alike on issues of the heart.

Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestic,” America’s first newspaper was the vehicle to get that done. Brown says, “Publick Occurrences was brought to an end after only one issue by an outraged administration, claiming that it contained “reflections of a very high order.” It was printed without authority. An aroused bureaucracy issued a broadside warning against future publications of any kind without “licence [sic] first obtained from those appointed by the Government to grant the same.” (Brown, n.d.).

America has most certainly come a long way from nothing to say to have much to say about everything. People of the world speak out about the happenings in life around them. Notably so, are those in charge of citizenry; such as the President of the United States where the most remarkable speeches come from those men who want people to live in harmony. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, whose “fireside chats” via radio changed American politics. He talked to American citizens about the “New Deal” and America citizens listened. (Eisenhower, n.d. Para. 2).

American citizens read, they speak out and they watch. Most noted in America is the assassination of President John F. Kennedy where America sit in front of their television sets in horror and shock, and where one reporter notes, “In the new world of communications there was no time for any such babying of the emotions, no time to collect oneself, no time for anything except to sit transfixed before the set and try to bring into reality this monstrous, unthinkable thing. Because the word was not only instantaneous but visual, and because at no time did the television reporters know any more than the viewers did, 180,000,000 were forced to live the experience not just hour to hour, or minute to minute, but quite literally from second to second, even as the reporters themselves did. According to Nielsen statistics, a point was reached during the funeral on Monday afternoon when 41,553,000 sets were in use, believed to be an all-time high. For four days the American people were virtual prisoners of an electronic box.” (TV Guide, 1964, Para. 2).

Accordingly, the internet is the world’s breakthrough of the silent citizen held prisoner to the radio, television and newspapers of their countries, because online there is radio, TV, newspaper all rolled into one huge global delivery system. No longer does the world have to sit fixed in front of the radio waiting for a broadcast; nor do they have to wait for the Sunday edition to get more of the news. Thus, the internet brings audio, video, news reporting and writing; and, what the citizens want right to the reader from anywhere in the world.

The audience of the World Wide Web is endless and it has a personality to match. People from all walks of life log on to the internet wherever they are to read the news, play games, and watch videos, read obituaries and to visit their favorite sites.  Rich and poor alike are in it for the ease and comfort of browsing from site to site. Hence, those who read online; especially news, are looking for instant news to fit their busy lifestyles. Gone are the days when people sit on the couch and wait for the news at 5 broadcasts. Life on the run is the name of the game and the internet meets those needs. Craig says, “In the United States the content of commercial media is generally driven by a combination of the medium’s own characteristics and the likes and dislikes of its audience.” (Craig, 2005, p. 9). Thus, there is something to fit everyone’s taste; from science to how-to guides.

The online world of Journalism is far above that of the television in that there are constant updates available for any viewer who chooses to watch or read. Television is great for live broadcast but fails to give minute coverage and updates as is seen with the online news broadcast. Moreover, video clips can be viewed later if the reader has another obligation. It must be noted; however, with the Kennedy assassination viewers sitting riveted to screen also conveys the reality that those at work could not watch. TV Guide reports, “Walter Cronkite, the anchor man of the CBS team, was the first on the air with the bulletin. At 1:30 (EST) when the soap opera, “As the World Turns,” went on live, Cronkite was preparing his regular evening news show, and in every sense the day was an ordinary one, at least judging by the trials and tribulations of the characters in the soap opera. In retrospect, the hero’s sudsy dilemma as to whether or not he should remarry his divorced wife, and his mother’s subsequent conversation with his grandfather about it, seems about as eerily remote as another galaxy. Actress Helen Wagner was just saying, “I gave it a great deal of thought, Grandpa,” when the program was interrupted.” (TV Guide, 1964, Para. 8).

Online activity and reader view allows for anytime view of the news no matter where; however, to be online one must have a computer.  Craig says, “Reading online requires both a computer and internet access. A majority of Americans now have access to computers at home, at work or in the community, but this still weighs on the online audience heavily in favor of those who have computers. When compared with television, which is in more than 98 percent of U.S. households this is a seriously limiting factor.” (Craig, 2005, p. 8).

Live news is always a plus, because no one can dispute whether a source is correct; and neither, does anyone question who said what. Hence, in news reporting the journalist citing sources correctly is critical in the interviewing process. The thing to remember and this is a key point; is that, sources are people with feelings and desires. No one likes reporters for obvious reasons; such as, people are mobbed by them, chased, by them, misquoted by them; also for a number of other reasons.Accordingly, rumors spread across America at the time of Princess Diana’s death where the media was accused of chasing her limousine which resulted in the crash which ended her life. Furthermore, no one has confirmed for sure whether or not this is true to this day. However, this is one reason why when interviewing there should be some kind of resolve on behalf of the reporter to get the words of the source right from the horse’s mouth; preferably, an eye witness. Craig says, “Local reporters are often recognizable figures who can be identified and engaged in conversation on the street and in the grocery store.” (Craig, 2005, p. 65).

A reporter seen as friendly, and one who mingles with the people cannot be viewed as the “evil reporter” who sits behind their desk at the newspaper, nor, as one whose only care is to sell papers; but, can also be viewed as one who knows what the people want. The question every reporter should ask themselves is how I can help if I do not know what the people need? Speculating what the people want does not make for a good story.

Another key point Craig brings out is “who is the person?”  Hence, who is contacting the reporter to give information? Reporters, especially online should be careful to find out. Craig reflects on this when he says, “Does this person have an ax to grind? This is a particular type of ulterior motive. If someone is trying to promote a particular agenda within the company or institution, he is quite likely to slant the information he gives you. This can include trying to make a person look bad, trying to get good press for a possible course of action or helping a crony get good press.” (Craig, 2005, p. 66). The role of the journalist should be as trustworthy as the source, and because of advances via satellite interviews can now be shown live on the web; as well as via television. Technology has indeed come a long way.

President Dwight Eisenhower, affectionately known as Ike was a man who loved the camera, as one journalist notes, “Due to new technological advances, including an improved transatlantic cable, his travels were seen by American audiences. Every night, living rooms in the United States were lit up with images of crowds cheering Eisenhower in England, Scotland, France, West Germany, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. The broadcasts permitted the public to relate directly to the international enthusiasm for Eisenhower, something that was much more difficult to experience by reading news accounts in print. Ike’s travels and TV appearances were so successful that he was named “Man of the Year” in the January 1960 issue of Time. The American public seemed to care less about the mistakes Ike made in the press conferences than they did about the repeated efforts he made to keep them personally informed about the national and international challenges the country was facing in the 1950s. Interestingly, no president since Eisenhower has convened as many broadcasted press conferences.” (Eisenhower, n.d. Para.10).

Broadcast of these travels are a notable accomplishment for the time; however, times have brought rapid growth and change of news reporting and styles. The internet is that change.

In remembrance of the first newspaper which was scrapped after only one issue. Many of the old British set would most probably turn in their graves to see, hear, and read what their kinsmen are writing today. Further, they would most likely be surprised with the measures on which they are getting it done. Way New Journalism has introduced a packaged deal, and Quittner writes, “Imagine what those new journalists could have done with video and sound, with hypertext, and limitless bandwidth.” (Quittner, 1995) (As cited by Craig, 2005, p. 93). Older people are still enthusiastic about the newspaper. There is no technical savvy or know how needed to turn the pages of papers, or linger over a cup of coffee with the morning edition. However, most adults in the work world; especially journalist have made great use of the their time spent reading and gathering stories for those readers who either do not have time for the traditional read, or who just don’t want the bother. Craig says, “The style that emerged had less to do with traditional straight ahead story telling than grabbing the readers and shaking them to attention. It would be witty, irreverent and challenge the reader rather than simply stating facts.” (Craig, 2005, p. 93).

Citizens are becoming increasingly involved in journalism. Traditional journalism, such as is found in print with its fact and data is still valued. However, who tell can tell what goes on in their neighborhood better than those who live there? Hence, straight from the horse’s mouth is really being explained here. Glaser says this, “The idea behind citizen journalism is that people without professional journalism training can use the tools of modern technology and the global distribution of the Internet to create, augment or fact-check media on their own or in collaboration with others. For example, you might write about a city council meeting on your blog or in an online forum. Or you could fact-check a newspaper article from the mainstream media and point out factual errors or bias on your blog. Or you might snap a digital photo of a newsworthy event happening in your town and post it online. Or you might videotape a similar event and post it on a site such as YouTube.” (Glaser, 2006, Para. 1).

People are not taking the media’s word for it anymore, and some even take it a step further to report the news again on the same stories seen in the media. It is not the case that the journalists’ report the news and the people accept what they read as truth. People today; ordinary people, who work, and live near by are reporting the news as they see it. Craig adds further, “Most online news stills bears a strong resemblance to print news, with a few bells and whistles sprinkled in to add a little spice. However, it seems that online news has begun to develop a voice and a style of its own, based largely on characteristics of the medium…any fool can cop and attitude, but the best writing in the “New Way” style often contains solid, factual reporting behind the humor and irreverence.” (Craig, 2005, p. 98).

However great, journalism on the internet has become in reporting the news; whether print or broadcast through television or radio the news gathering and sources should be reliable. Journalists must be considerate of laws as well as adhering to them. Many people have found themselves in court responsible for not only their words, but the action of others. Hence, legal issues are always a concern for the journalist whether on the internet or other vehicles of reporting.

Concerning Participatory Journalism We Media says this: “The venerable profession of journalism finds itself at a rare moment in history where, for the first time, its hegemony as gatekeeper of the news is threatened by not just new technology and competitors but, potentially, by the audience it serves. Armed with easy-to-use Web publishing tools, always-on connections and increasingly powerful mobile devices, the online audience has the means to become an active participant in the creation and dissemination of news and information.” (Media Center, 2012, Para. 16).

Participants from every walk of life want to have their say and news sites all over the world are giving place for them to say it over the internet. We Media adds, “According to the Pew Internet Project, the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, generated the most traffic to traditional news sites in the history of the Web. Many large news sites buckled under the immense demand and people turned to e-mail, weblogs and forums “as conduits for information, commentary, and action related to 9/11 events.” The response on the Internet gave rise to a new proliferation of “do-it-yourself journalism.” Everything from eyewitness accounts and photo galleries to commentary and personal storytelling emerged to help people collectively grasp the confusion, anger and loss felt in the wake of the tragedy. (Media Center, 2012, Para. 17). Hence, everybody everywhere can be a reporter and tell what they see, think and hear about news happening all over the world.

This breakthrough for the everyday person brings with it many challenges to site owners who want to allow the citizen to have their say, but must be aware of damages and legal issues which can arise if they fail to monitor their guests. One person found this out first hand when he found himself on other end of a court citation. “Stratton Oakmont v. Prodigy (1995).  In this case, claims were made that an anonymous Prodigy user posted defamatory remarks about Stratton Oakmont in their Money Talk forum. In this case a person might ask; why does this make the site owner responsible for their participants’ remarks? The premise here is simple, the owner of the site is responsible for the remarks of those who post if they maintain editorial control and the right to delete defamatory or argumentative posts and content on their site. (as cited by Craig, 2005, p. 239). Thus, site owners should be careful of their responsibilities in the content allowed on their site.

Craig adds, “The internet has operated for more than 30 years, yet legal status of much internet communication is still largely unclear for three reasons: The first is that it’s truly an international network, with no central headquarters in one nation and no organizing authority. Secondly, it has radically changed the nature of intellectual property. Thirdly, the explosion of the web in the last few years has brought an exponential growth of commerce to the Web, with all its accompanying legal issues. Each of these has implications for the journalists.” (Craig, 2005, p. 233). Therefore, the journalist and site owner should be aware of these implications.  Journalists have some protection through shield laws which protects them from having to divulge sources; this however, is true for some states but not all.

Notably, the job of the journalist has taken on more job skills than was seen in the past the journalistic task was simply to sit down at his typewriter and produce the story. Today, the cyber journalist has many tasks and many skills to adapt to the online environment. Craig says, “A reporter works for a news portal, which produces news for a variety of media, including handheld devices, television, computer and print. Walking in he will sit down at his desk, and all around him the video screens are seen here and there throughout the room showing live footage from other online sources. This journalist of now will check to see that there is a photographer to shoot pictures and video standup while accompanying him on his beat. Maybe he considers as he prepares for the task that he will have to shoot raw footage of the event himself; either way he notes, he will have to take his Digital Reporters Notebook. This journalist knows that he cannot wait for help if there is none available he must do it himself; he is confident he can.” (Craig, 2005, P. 263)

Eventually, television, radio, and print news might become second rate in the minds of those who are technologically savvy. No longer or people confined to the television set, the newspaper only, but for many the breakthrough has come, and people receive news on the go. Moreover, the user is transported into other places and other times from work, from home, from anywhere in the world. The job of the online journalist to take them there; definitively, telling the story. People all over the world are interactive and they watch, read, hear, speak out, write and listen to the reported news. On a personal and more reflective note, I cannot imagine not being able to write down what I want to say, think or have learned in life, and neither can I accept another’s reasoning without investing purposeful time to gather my own news. People who have no voice are lost; and, sadly allow opportunities to pass them by. People need to be able to communicate their thoughts, dreams, passions, desires and grievances in whatever manner available to them. Hence, if I want to write I am free to do so, to report I can am free to do so as well. There is something about the ink on paper that penetrates the deepest depths of the mind and soul. Without a doubt freedom is needed to write down our vision, what we see in life, because when there is no hope the people die. (Dailey, K., (2012)

Source:

Publick Occurrences, Both foreign and Domestick. 

Eisenhower and the Media, Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission

Your Guide to Citizen Journalism

We Media, How Audiences are Shaping the Future of News and Information

 America’s Long Vigil 

Online Journalism

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